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This information is for those interested in the installation of public charging infrastructure. It outlines types of charging systems and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and provides recommendations for public charging point connectors. and socket outlets. The recommendations have been made to help achieve interoperability of New Zealand’s public charging infrastructure network.

These recommendations will help ensure that New Zealand’s public charging infrastructure:

  • enables the maximum number of electric vehicles (EVs) to be charged using publicly accessible charging infrastructure
  • aligns with emerging technology and market changes
  • is safe for infrastructure users, and
  • is compatible with the existing fleet of EVs.

View the recommendations for public charging installations.

Types of charging systems

There are two broad types of public charging systems.

Public DC charging

DC powered charging in New Zealand is typically fast charge. These systems generally provide charging at a rate of up to 50kW (at this rate a Nissan Leaf would be charged to 80 percent full in around 20 minutes). This type of charging is suited to locations serving inter-city EV drivers, where drivers want to make shorter stops, or where the infrastructure provider wants to encourage a rapid turnover of users.

Public AC charging

AC powered charging is provided in a range of charging speeds. Typical AC systems provide drivers with a charging rate of 7 to 22 kW (at the lower rate, a Nissan Leaf would be fully charged within eight hours). This is more suitable for locations where drivers stop for longer or where a high turnover of users is less important. There are also AC systems available which can provide a higher-powered charge (up to 43kW).

Electric vehicle supply equipment

Charging station

The charging station supplies and manages the electricity that is supplied to the EV and ensures that the charging of the EV is safe.

Supply cable

The supply cable transfers electricity from the charging station to the vehicle connector on the EV. It also provides communication between the vehicle and the charging station, allowing the vehicle and charging station to work together to control how and when the vehicle is charged.

Charging station - supply cable connection

The supply cable may be hard-wired into the charging station (i.e. “tethered”), or it may be connected to the charging station by a plug on the supply cable inserted into a socket outlet on the charging station.

 

An examples of DC Charging Stations with tethered cables

An example of a DC charging station with tethered cables.

An example of a supply cable with a plug that is inserted into a socket outlet

An example of a supply cable with a plug that is inserted into a socket outlet on the charging station.

Supply cable-electric vehicle connection

The supply cable-EV connection comprises of a connector on the supply cable and an inlet on the vehicle.

A typical vehicle-side charging point connection

A typical vehicle-side charging point connection.

Types of charging connectors

The types of charging connectors¹ that relate to New Zealand’s EV fleet are as follows:

ConnectorDescription
SAE J1772 Type 1 AC

SAE J1772 Type 1 AC

TYPE 1 AC

This is a standard connector for AC charging. It has origins in the US but is also a standard connector in use in Japan. Some European-origin EVs also use this connector.

EV models with Type 1 inlets in New Zealand include:

  • Nissan Leaf (including imports)
  • Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV
  • Nissan e-NV 200
  • Kia Soul EV
  • BMW i3 (New Zealand new)
  • Audi 3 e-tron (New Zealand new)
SAE J1772 DC CCS Combo 1 Connector Type 1

SAE J1772 DC CCS Combo 1 Connector Type 1

 

TYPE 1 DC CCS Combo 1

This connector is used in the US for DC charging and was also adopted for some European-origin EVs.

Models with Type 1 Combo inlets in New Zealand include:

  • BMW i3 (New Zealand new)
Chademo-Yazaki-Connector

Chademo Yazaki Connector

CHAdeMo DC (recommended for New Zealand)

This connector is used for DC charging in Japan and is currently the most common connector used for DC charging in New Zealand. It is also used in the US and in Europe.

Models with CHAdeMo inlets in New Zealand include:

  • Nissan Leaf (including imports)
  • Nissan e-NV200
Tesla cars imported from UK or Australia have a Type 2 inlet but can use a CHAdeMo connector using a Tesla-supplied accessory.
IEC 62196 Type 2

IEC 62196 Type 2

TYPE 2 or Mennekes AC (Recommended for the connection of the supply cable to the charging station when using untethered cables)

This connector has become widely used across Europe.

Models with Mennekes inlets in New Zealand include:
  • used European EVs including BMW, Audi, VW and Mercedes
  • New Zealand new Renault Zoe and Kangoo Z.E.
  • Tesla cars imported from UK or Australia
EU DC CCS Combo 2 Connector Type 2

EU DC CCS Combo 2 Connector Type 2

EU DC CSS Combo TYPE 2 DC (Recommended for New Zealand)

This is a fast DC charging connector used extensively across Europe. The industry in New Zealand is adopting this connector, alongside the CHAdeMo, for fast (and possibly slow) DC charging.

Models with Type 2 Combo inlets in New Zealand include:

  • European-origin EVs including BMW i3 and VW e-GOLF
Tesla Charging Connector

Tesla charging connector

Tesla

Used on Tesla cars imported from US or Japan.It has fast DC and AC, and slow AC, charging capabilities.

Note: these proprietary chargers are not installed in New Zealand; however a Tesla supplied accessory can be used to charge from a CHAdeMo or CCS Type 2 connector.

Recommendations for public charging installations

Public FAST charging

It is recommended that DC fast charge installations have at least two tethered cables:

one fitted with a CHAdeMo connector, and

Chademo Yazaki Connector

one fitted with a CCS Type 2 connector

EU DC CCS Combo 2 Connector Type 2

It is also recommended that an additional Type 2 socket outlet is provided at the charging station (for relatively fast AC charging for selected vehicles).

IEC 62196 Type 2 socket outline


Public SLOW charging

It is recommended that all public slow charge installations have a Type 2 socket outlet.

IEC 62196 Type 2 socket outline

Note:

  • The use of a charging station fitted with a Type 2 socket outlet will require EV drivers to supply their own flexible cable with a Type 2 plug at one end and a plug that matches their vehicle at the other end.
  • Adaptors that change the supply cable plug or vehicle connector into another type are not considered safe. Where connections to different connection types are required, then an additional, different, supply cable will be required.
¹Charging connector diagrams source: Electric Vehicle Institute (external link)
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