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Research Report 147 Security of New Zealand's strategic roading system

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

The reliable operation of New Zealand's road network is critical to both its economic success and its social development. Disruption to some parts of the network may therefore have a large negative impact on these.

Research Report 296 Natural hazard road risk management – part III: performance criteria

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

Road networks are lifelines for the community and are essential for the social and economic well-being of New Zealand. Natural hazards cause considerable damage to road networks from time to time and cause widespread disruption to transportation, leading to significant repair costs to road controlling authorities, access difficulties for emergency services, and disruption to road users and the community at large. Currently, we have no guidelines for setting levels of service or performance measures for roads which are subject to natural hazard events. As a result, roads which are subject to natural hazard events have been managed mainly reactively, which has led to high ongoing expenditure in terms of damage costs, disruption costs and adverse effects to the community. This is the third part of a three part research project developed between 2002 and 2005 concerning the management of risks to road networks from natural hazards.

Research Report 148 Risk assessment methods in road network evaluation

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

This study, carried out in 1998, investigates hazards that have the potential to close the Desert Road, which traverses for some 60 km the Central Volcanic Plateau of the North Island, New Zealand, at around 1000 m altitude. It is part of New Zealand's major north-south link, State Highway 1, and it provides a case study for the application of risk assessment methodology to the evaluation of road networks in New Zealand.

Research Report 077 Seismic evaluation and retrofit technology for bridges

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

Despite recent progress by the structural engineering profession in addressing bridge seismic risks, several areas exist where improvements in bridge evaluation and retrofit practices are needed. This report reviews the common seismic deficiencies of bridges, procedures and criteria for the seismic evaluation of bridges, and the engineering techniques which have been used, up to 1996, for retrofitting bridge seismic deficiencies. Information on seismic deficiencies, retrofit techniques, and related research has been summarised in tabular form.

Research Report 539 A new vehicle loading standard for road bridges in New Zealand

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

This research report proposes a new vehicle loading standard for the design and evaluation of road bridges and other highway infrastructure in New Zealand. It is based upon a literature review of current traffic loading and bridge evaluation specifications in New Zealand and overseas, as well as a review of studies into the economic aspects of bridge design loadings and the economic benefits of increasing the mass limits of heavy vehicles in Australia and New Zealand.

Research Report 078 Seismic testing & behaviour of a 1936-designed reinforced-concrete bridge

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

The laboratory testing and inelastic computer analysis are described for a 1936-designed bridge which is typical of many of the older, reinforced-concrete, multi-span bridges in New Zealand. The structure has plain-round (undeformed) reinforcing bars and anchorage details, shear strength, and column-transverse reinforcement that are potentially deficient. Despite the suspected seismic deficiencies, the testing and analysis of the bridge show that its seismic performance will be good.

Research Report 208 Progressive underslip stabilisation using gravel columns

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

This report presents the findings of the monitoring programme undertaken by GHD at Snake Hill (SH1 RP 144/11.34), a road slip site which was stabilised using graded gravel column drains. Monitoring of pore water pressures was undertaken using piezometers, inclinometers were monitored to determine deformation, and computer simulated back analysis was undertaken. This report discusses the results of the monitoring programme, and asserts that the column drains have provided effective positive subsurface drainage to the failure planes, resulting in the stabilisation of the site. It also discusses the typical cost of methods for the stabilisation of deep-seated road failures driven by high pore water pressures, and finds that column drains are comparatively cost-effective.

Research Report 382 Using risk analysis to assess treatments for frost and ice

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

The comparative effects on skid resistance of the two commonly used treatments for frost and ice on New Zealand roads, mineral grit and the anti-icing/de-icing agent calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), were examined through an on-road test programme. This involved locked-wheel braking tests on selected test sites under a variety of conditions using an instrumented car. Tests were conducted for various treatments, including dry (no treatment), wet, application of grit and application of CMA. Road surface types included fine and coarse chipseal, open-graded porous asphalt, asphaltic concrete and slurry seal. Comparisons of skid resistance were made between the different surfaces and different road surface treatments. Additional laboratory tests were conducted to assess the comparative variation of skid resistance with time following treatment. Typical traffic levels were also obtained for the test sites. These were combined with the changes in skid resistance for the different treatments at different times to provide an...

Research Report 134 Risk assessment techniques for optimising slope-failure preventative maintenance programmes

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

A North American method for establishing an optimised slope-failure preventive maintenance programme for use by roading authorities has been identified and trialed by way of a case study, to determine its application to New Zealand roads, The method requires a knowledge of the slope instability, and accident and maintenance history affecting the site. This information can be used to quantify the risk to road users from adverse slope instability affects, and to identify and cost a range of preventative maintenance programmes which could be implemented to mitigate the risk. A study was carried out in 1997–98 on a length of State HIghway 73 (Christchurch to Arthur's Pass) to verify the suitability of the method for New Zealand roads. The existing slope-failure maintenance programme at the study area, involving detritus clearing and call outs to remove rockfall material from the road, appears not to be the optimum when considered in terms...

Research Report 135 A risk assessment procedure for optimising slope-failure preventative maintenance programmes

Published: | Category: Research & reports , Research programme | Audience: General

A methodology has been developed, based on a study carried out in 1998–99, to assist in selecting optimum slope-failure preventive maintenance programmes for highways. The existing risk to road users from slope instability is first quantified, then the effectiveness of maintenance programmes in reducing the risk to road users is determined and the mitigated risks quantified. The risks are expressed in economic terms and the implementation costs associated with each programme are incorporated into the analysis. The technique allows for the consideration of uncertainty in various input parameters (both geotechnical and economic). Monte Carlo simulation allows analysis outputs to be expressed in terms of probability distributions. The uncertainty associated with the analysis outcome may therefore be quantified, leading to better informed decision-making and prioritisation of expenditure. A Microsoft Excel 97 file has been developed to allow the technique to be applied to a range of slope stability situations.