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You searched in: Environmental impacts of land transport


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 515 - The effect of rainfall and contaminants on road pavement skid resistance

Published: Apr 2013
  • Reference: 515
  • ISBN: 978-0-478-40724-2
  • Author: DJ Wilson University of Auckland

This research project, which was undertaken between 2003 and 2006, aimed to improve the understanding of the effect that environmental factors (eg rainfall and detritus) have on the variation of measured skid resistance, both in the short and longer term. Phase 1 of the research was a field study of seven sites in the Auckland and Northland regions over 2.5+ years, with regular skid resistance...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 513 Impact of urban form on transport and economic outcomes

Published: Jan 2013
  • Reference: 513
  • ISBN: 978-0-478-40720-4
  • Author: MRCagney, Urbanismplus

Urban form describes the physical shape and settlement/land use patterns of cities and towns. This research addressed two key questions: 1) How urban form impacts on transport and economic outcomes and 2) How regional and local council planning policies can contribute to a more efficient and durable urban form. We found that urban form has modest impacts on transport outcomes, through...

  • Reference: 503
  • ISBN: 978-0-478-39496-2
  • Author: Manaaki Whenua

Internationally there is an increasing expectation for roadways to have a minimal environmental footprint, to express local environmental and cultural context, and to protect or respect natural, historical and landscape assets – in addition to being efficient and safe. New Zealand depends on the integrity of its clean green brand and the highways are the shop window of the nation and...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research report 493 Field evaluation of media filtration stormwater treatment devices

Published: Aug 2012
  • Reference: 493
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-39472-6 (electronic)
  • Author: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd

This study evaluated the performance of media filtration stormwater treatment devices for removing suspended solids, copper and zinc from road runoff. Between September 2010 and March 2012, a field programme comprising the measurement of runoff volumes and the collection and analysis of influent and effluent samples was conducted using three different commercially available devices installed at...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research report 485 Ground vibration from road construction

Published: May 2012
  • Reference: 485
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-39444-3 (electronic)
  • Author: Opus International Consultants Ltd

There is an increasing requirement to control and manage ground vibrations generated by road construction and maintenance activities through project specific construction management plans. The objective is to minimise any potential adverse effects. The ability to reliably estimate vibration levels of specific construction activities at the project planning stage and to assess their likely...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 479 The economic and land use impacts of transformational transport investment

Published: Mar 2012
  • Reference: 479
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478- 39425-2 (electronic)
  • Author: Opus International Consultants Ltd, Ascari Partners, Business and Economic Research Ltd (BERL)

The purpose of this research, which was undertaken between July 2010 and June 2011, was to develop, test and recommend additional methodologies that could be used to quantify the economic productivity and land use impacts when assessing transformational or structural transport investments over time. Currently there is a knowledge gap in this area and the intention was to develop a more strategic...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 462 Lifetime liabilities of land transport using road and rail infrastructure

Published: Dec 2011
  • Reference: 462
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-38073-6 (print); ISBN 978-0-478-38072-9 (electronic)
  • Author: Landcare Research Ltd

The aim of the project was to establish the whole-of-life environmental performance of passenger and freight movement that uses roads and rail. The performance indicators selected were life cycle energy consumption, life cycle stormwater contamination, and life cycle GHG emissions. This study was based on process assessment and considered material use, transport requirements, on-site machinery...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 457 Determination of personal exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes

Published: Nov 2011
  • Reference: 457
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-38057-6 (print); ISBN 978-0-478-38056-9 (electronic)
  • Author: NIWA, University of Auckland, University of Canterbury

This purpose of this project is to assess the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in New Zealand cities. Concentrations of the key traffic-related pollutants (particulate matter: (PM): PM10, PM2.5, PM1; ultrafine particles (UFPs) and carbon monoxide (CO)) were simultaneously monitored on pre-defined routes in Auckland and...

  • Reference: 446
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-38003-3 (print); ISBN 978-0-478-38002-6 (electronic)
  • Author: Opus Central Laboratories, Marshall Day Acoustics

Many road designations have conditions with respect to noise that require that when the road is completed, measurements will be undertaken to prove that the performance standards of those conditions have been fulfilled. However all measurements are subject to variability, and the designation conditions do not address either the expected nature of this variability, or how it should be accounted...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 441 Are the harmful emissions from New Zealand's light duty vehicle fleet improving?

Published: May 2011
  • Reference: 441
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-37187-1 (print) ISBN 978-0-478-37188-0 (electronic)
  • Author: NIWA

Vehicle emission reduction technologies are continually improving. In theory, as new vehicles replace old ones in the fleet and as fuel quality improves, the amount of pollutants discharged on a per vehicle basis should (on average) be reducing. However, it is unclear how much influence new technology and improved fuel is actually having on the 'real-world' emissions from the light duty...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research report 422 Integrated transport assessment guidelines

Published: Nov 2010
  • Reference: 422
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-37114-7 (electronic)
  • Author: Abley Transportation Engineers

This research provides a methodology for assessing the effects of a development proposal within the context of the New Zealand regulatory structure. The integrated transport assessment (ITA) guidelines are based on the varying scopes of assessment (simple, moderate, broad and extensive). The possible content for each ITA assessment type and the matters to be discussed are described, as is the...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research report 404 Environmental and financial costs and benefits of warm asphalts

Published: Jun 2010
  • Reference: 404
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-36422-4 (electronic)
  • Author: Opus International Consultants Ltd

Warm asphalts are asphalts produced at significantly lower temperatures than the C that is typical of a hot mix plant. Depending on the approximately 160 technology used, laying and compaction may also be possible at significantly reduced temperatures. The report gives a summary of current warm asphalt technologies, followed by details of costs, temperature reductions and energy savings. A...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 406 Quantifying the benefits of waste minimisation

Published: Jun 2010
  • Reference: 406
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-36432-3 (electronic)
  • Author: Opus International Consultants Ltd

A methodology was developed in 2006-2009 to quantify the benefits of waste minimisation in road construction. The methodology uses estimates of the energy and emissions involved in all operations, raw and recycled materials used, and the costs, energy use and emissions associated with traffic delay. A spreadsheet was developed as a tool for road controlling authorities to decide on the merits of...

  • Reference: 395
  • ISBN: 978-0-478-35288-7 (electronic)
  • Author: NIWA

This study provides guidance on Vehicle Emission Factors (VEFs) for loads of copper and zinc discharged in road runoff, and the performance of stormwater treatment devices for removing these metals and total suspended sediments (TSS).

Between February 2008 and June 2009, a field programme comprising the measurement of road runoff volumes and the collection and analysis of runoff...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 393 Relative costs and benefits of modal transport solutions

Published: Dec 2009
  • Reference: 393
  • ISBN: PDF: 978-0-478-35278-8 PRINT: 978-0-478-35279-5
  • Author: GHD Limited

This report describes the outcomes of a study commissioned by the NZ Transport Agency to inform local authorities about the costs and benefits of transport modes. The aim of the study has been to provide general advice on the relative cost and benefits of alternatives with a focus on passenger transport in urban areas.

The report looks at issues decision makers face in estimating...

  • Reference: 388
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-35225-2 (print) ISBN 978-0-478-35224-5 (electronic) ISSN 1173-3756 (print) ISSN 1173-3764 (electronic)
  • Author: Fulton Hogan Ltd, NIWA

Coal tar-derived roading material contains over 1000 times more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than equivalent bitumen pavements and has been identified as a major source of PAHs in both Christchurch and Auckland aquatic receiving environments. Many old streets containing coal tar will soon require reconstruction, and therefore the excavation and potential disposal of contaminated...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 368 Long-term dust suppression using the Otta seal technique

Published: 2009
  • Reference: 368
  • ISBN: ISBN: 978-0-478-33494-4 (paperback) ISBN: 978-0-478-33493-7 (pdf) ISSN: 1173 3756 (paperback) ISSN: 1173-3764 (pdf)
  • Author: Fulton Hogan Ltd

A 2004 trial of the Otta seal technique in various locations in New Zealand showed that it may be a better option for dust minimisation and, based on life cycle costing, could be a lower-cost option when compared with traditional short-term dust palliatives. A research trial was proposed to, and funded by, Land Transport New Zealand to set up four trial sites around New Zealand, to compare the...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 360 Residual binder extraction from emulsions for quality assurance testing

Published: Oct 2008
  • Reference: 360
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-33421-0 (paperback) ISBN 978-0-478-33443-2 (PDF) ISSN 1173-3756 (paperback) ISSN (PDF) 1173-3764 (PDF)
  • Author: Fulton Hogan Ltd, Opus International Consultants Ltd

Safety and environmental drivers are pushing the New Zealand road construction industry away from hot, cutback binders and towards the use of emulsified bitumen as the delivery medium for chipseal binders. However, there is no agreed standard method for recovery and testing of the emulsified binder. The absence of such a method could potentially lead to dispute over the quality and contractual...


Category: Environmental impacts of land transport

Research Report 351 The effect of adding recycled glass on the performance of basecourse aggregate

Published: Oct 2008
  • Reference: 351
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-33406-7 (paperback) ISBN 978-0-478-33444-9 (PDF) ISSN 1173-3756 (paperback) ISSN 1173-3764 (PDF)
  • Author: NZ Transport Agency, Pavespec Ltd, University of Canterbury

Glass bottles collected by councils are forming large stockpiles, particularly in the South Island, as it is uneconomic to transport the glass to the Auckland plant for recycling. An alternative method of disposal would be to crush the glass and mix it into basecourse aggregate. NZ Transport Agency currently allows up to 5% by mass of crushed glass to be mixed in the aggregate.


  • Reference: 348
  • ISBN: ISBN 978-0-478-30977-5 ISSN 1177-0600
  • Author: MWH New Zealand Limited

This report provides the outcomes from research based on the Land Transport New Zealand gravel road monitoring programme that commenced during 2002 and included the cooperation of 51 local authorities. These sections were monitored on a sixmonthly basis and all relevant data such as maintenance, rainfall where available and evaporation were incorporated into a national database. This research...

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