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Glossary of terms commonly used in the Business Case Approach

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Activity

An individual land transport intervention to address a problem or opportunity, which will have a defined start, end and scope, for example a bridge replacement. Activities are usually part of a programme.

Activity class

A grouping of similar activities. There are 10 activity classes for National Land Transport Programme (NLTP) funding. The purpose of the classification of activities is to:

  • ensure conformity of the NLTP funding structure with the activity classes defined in the current Government Policy Statement on Land Transport (GPS)
  • identify activities that are eligible for funding from the National Land Transport Fund and from funds the Transport Agency is managing on behalf of the government
  • provide a basis for comparing transport costs over time and between organisations.

View the activity classes

Activity-level business case

Single-stage business cases (SSBCs), and indicative business cases (IBCs) and detailed business cases (DBCs), are sometimes called activity-level businesses cases because they focus on the details of an activity (as opposed to a programme of activities). They are funded from the relevant activity class.

Activity management plan (AMP)

Plans prepared by the owners of infrastructure assets, which detail how they manage these assets in the context of the services they are supporting and explain the purpose of holding the asset. The goal of good asset management is to support the delivery of a level of service (whatever the service may be) in the most cost-effective manner, taking long-term sustainability into account. Local authority AMPs are prepared in accordance with clause 2 of schedule 10 of the Local Government Act 2002. AMPs should be based on the New Zealand Asset Management Support (external link) (NAMS) Group’s International infrastructure management manual.

Alternatives

A strategic way of responding to the problems and delivering the benefits identified in the strategic assessment of a business case. Alternatives and options are sometimes referred to interchangeably, however, in this context they have different definitions. An alternative is a higher-level response, such as exploring potential for different land use arrangements, or encouraging greater use of other modes to address projected growth in network demand, alongside more conventional supply focused approaches involving new infrastructure.

Alternatives and options are usually considered and assessed during the programme business case phase and developed during the detailed business case phase. In developing alternatives, it is important to consider ones that address:

  • demand – for example, ways in which the need for travel can be reduced
  • productivity – for example, by making sure the current system is optimised as far as reasonably practicable
  • supply –  for example, provision of new services or infrastructure.

See also Options 

Approved organisation (AO)

A regional council, territorial authority, or public organisation that has been approved to apply to for funding from the National Land Transport Fund.

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Benchmarking

Benchmarking is where an investment proposal is compared against a normalised group of other proposals within a pre-determined peer group with a similar network levels of service to ensure value for money. The Transport Agency will use peer groups for cost–benefit appraisal benchmarking and act as the basis for cost comparison discussions.

Benefit

A benefit is the measureable improvement that results from an outcome. It answers the question: ‘what value is derived from this outcome?’ In the context of a business case, a benefit is normally a positive consequence of responding to an identified problem or opportunity. Examples include:

  • a reduction in travel time between A and B
  • a reduction in the number and duration of road closures
  • a more affordable maintenance programme
  • people have access to a wider range of transport choices.

Note that a specific use of the term benefit arises when monetised benefits are used to determine a benefit–cost ratio (BCR). Not all benefits can be monetised.

See also Benefits map

Benefit–cost ratio (BCR)

The Transport Agency uses BCR as a measure of economic efficiency from a national perspective as defined in the Economic evaluation manual. The ratio compares the monetised benefits to land transport users and the wider community from implementing a project or providing a service with the whole-of-life costs of that project or service. For example, a project which has the total benefits of $100 million, with a total cost of $50 million (both in present value), has a BCR of 2. BCR is used to assess improvement activities in the cost–benefit appraisal portion of the Investment Assessment Framework, which the Transport Agency uses to assess proposed investments. It enables different projects to be compared with each other.

Benefits map

A one-page flowchart that shows the benefits of a potential investment to an organisation or its customers in a form that can quickly be understood by decision makers. It should also include:

  • at least one supporting key performance indicator (KPI) that demonstrates the investment’s specific contribution to each identified benefit
  • an obvious connection between the benefits and outcomes in the context of their local impact.

Benefits maps are typically created as an output of a benefits workshop and usually continue to be developed as the business case progresses.

See also investment logic mapping.

Business case

A document that expresses the reasoning and justification for investing in a change, project or programme. It:

  • describes the case for change
  • explains how to achieve best public value
  • considers commercial viability
  • recommends a preferred option, which is affordable and achievable.

The Business Case Approach provides a robust and flexible way of developing business cases for transport investment.

Business Case Approach (BCA)

The Transport Agency’s principles-based framework for developing a business case for investment, which must be followed by organisations seeking funding from the National Land Transport Programme.

Read more about the BCA

Business Case Approach behaviours

These behaviours ensure the BCA principles are applied correctly:

  • Gathering information through informed discussions with the appropriate stakeholders: successful investment management relies on gathering knowledge through informed discussion between the people who have the most knowledge of a subject.
  • Building the case for investment progressively: the BCA relies on a structured, sequential approach to decision making, checking each phase as you go. All investments must follow the same line of enquiry. 

Business Case Approach capabilities

These capabilities are essential to successful business case development. They are:

  • Groundwork and context: identifying a potential problem’s origin and exploring what work may have already been done will help you to better understand it and to define the likely benefits of investment.
  • Relationship management: gathering information through informed discussions with stakeholders is a key BCA behaviour. Effective stakeholder engagement also helps promote innovation and collaboration among stakeholders.
  • Structure: making sure everything is aligned and set up correctly enables efficient and effective use of resources and minimises risks

Business Case Approach principles

These underpin the Business Case Approach:

  • Investing for benefits: investments are made to obtain organisational benefits. An investment should: contribute to the organisation’s strategic outcomes; represent value for money; and deliver benefits for customers.
  • Clarity of intent: the intention driving an investment must be clear. Simple concepts and plain language will provide a clear understanding of the problems and benefits.
  • Fit-for-purpose effort: the level of effort required to develop a business case must be proportionate to the complexity and risk of the problem and the proposed investment.

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Commercial case

This looks at the commercial viability of a preferred option and the consenting and procurement strategy that will be used to engage the market. It presents evidence on risk allocation and transfer as well as details of responsibilities for delivering different aspects of the programme. The commercial case is usually part of the single-stage  business case or detailed business case.

Constraint mapping

This is the identification of constraints to a proposed investment, such as no-go areas or where there would be additional cost for a preferred solution. For example, what is the environment (physical, social)? How do locals use this environment? What is the context? What are the constraints? Constraint mapping sets the scene for how problems impact on people and places in the area.

Continuous programme

A continuous programme is a group of activities, relating to existing assets and services, delivered on an on-going basis from one National Land Transport Programme (NLTP) to the next to maintain an adequate customer level of service (CLoS) 

That includes:

  • road maintenance (maintenance, operations and renewal of existing services)
  • public transport (existing services and operational amenities)
  • road safety promotion.

Cost effectiveness

Cost effectiveness analysis is used instead of a full cost–benefit appraisal where the objective is to compare the cost of different ways of achieving a given effect (such as a customer level of service), or comparing the relative cost of different strategies with different effects. The Transport Agency uses this approach to evaluate the economic efficiency of components of a public transport programme and operations, maintenance and renewals programmes, by comparing a programme with other similar programmes.

Cost–benefit appraisal (CBA)

The Transport Agency uses CBA as a way of quantifying the monetary value of the national benefit that results from government investment in transport. Assessment tools vary according to the context. For example:

CBA is part of the Investment Assessment Framework, which the Transport Agency uses to assess proposed investments.

See also Benefit–cost ratios.

Customer levels of service (CLoS)

CLoS are agreements between the transport user and the system provider that defines expectations, in measurable terms, for what the customer will experience when using the transport system for their journey.

The Transport Agency uses the following CLoS:

  • One Network Road Classification (ONRC), which can be applied to the road network for commuting, freight and tourist journeys, and also provides CLoS attributes for resilience, travel-time reliability and roughness.
  • For safety levels of service the Transport Agency adopts thresholds for medium and high safety risk derived from Safer Journeys (external link) (the government’s road safety strategy) areas of concern.
  • For cycling journeys, the Transport Agency Cycling Network Guidance adapts the Austroads Levels of Service. A New Zealand level of service for cycling is in development and will be available in 2018.
  • For public transport journeys, the Transport Agency uses the investment partner’s business case or supporting evidence to guide options and services in major metropolitan areas for commuter journeys, and for social services in other areas.

Where there is a gap between the expected service level and the current service level, it helps define the efficient level of investment needed.

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Detailed business case (DBC)

This phase develops a proposed activity, providing more detail about the economic, financial and commercial cases, and how it would be implemented. Because they are developed for each activity, one programme may have multiple DBCs.

DBCs usually only involve detailed analysis of the preferred option and the do-minimum option identified in the indicative business case (IBC).

Elements of the DBC phase, and the IBC phase, may be developed in a single-stage business case.

Find out more about the detailed business case

Do-minimum option

In developing business cases, the do-minimum option should represent the minimum level of expenditure required to maintain a minimum level of service, not the minimum level of investment required to achieve the investment objectives. For example, the most likely transport situation over the course of the appraisal period if no further intervention were to occur.

In theory, every option should be compared with the option of doing nothing at all, that is, the do-nothing option; however, for many transport activities it is not practical to do nothing at all.

It is important not to overstate the scope of the do-minimum option, that is, it should only include activities that are absolutely essential to preserve a minimum level of service. Where network interdependencies exist, the do-minimum option should take into account other activities elsewhere on the network where these other activities have a commitment to funding, and where they affect the demands and level of service at the location of interest.

The minimum level of investment to achieve the investment objectives is explored through the use of further options, in addition to the do-minimum. The do-minimum option is used as a baseline for comparing marginal costs and benefits of alternative activities. It provides the benchmark for determining the relative marginal value for money added by the other options under consideration.

Economic case

The main purpose of the economic case is to demonstrate that the investment proposal optimises value for money. This is achieved by identifying and evaluating a wide range of options in terms of how well they will meet the investment objectives.  Initial development of the economic case takes place during the programme business case, where the emphasis is on consideration of alternative responses and identification of a preferred programme. The economic case is further developed as part of the indicative business case, by the identification of a long list of options which are then evaluated to a short list, and ultimately a preferred option.

Economic evaluation manual (EEM)

The Transport Agency’s EEM is the tool for the transport sector to standardise social costs and benefits for complex, moderate- to high-risk improvement investment proposals. It sets out economic evaluation procedures and values used in calculating benefits and costs necessary for applications seeking investment where a cost–benefit appraisal from the Transport Agency is mandatory.

Financial case

Outlines the financial viability of the programme and possible funding sources by demonstrating that the preferred option will result in an affordable and fundable investment. The financial case is usually developed within the detailed business case.

Funding assistance rate (FAR)

The usual contribution, in percentage terms, that the Transport Agency makes to an approved organisation, for the delivery of an activity or combination of activities. The FAR system identifies how the costs of delivering transport activities are shared between central government through the National Land Transport Fund and local government (primarily through local body rates). Funding assistance rates are not subsidies, but part of a co-investment system which recognises that there are both national and local benefits from investing in the land transport network.

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Government Policy Statement on Land Transport (GPS)

The GPS sets out the government’s priorities for expenditure from the National Land Transport Fund (NLTF) over the next 10 years. The Transport Agency uses the results alignment portion of the Investment Assessment Framework to ensure that NLTF investments are aligned to the GPS.

Read the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport (GPS) (external link)

Improvement

Improvements are activities that increase levels of service to address an identified or significant gap in customer levels of service (CLoS), or improve the efficiency of the land transport system in delivering existing CLoS.

These activities include but are not limited to state highway improvements, local road improvements, regional improvements, resilience improvements, walking and cycling improvements and public transport improvements.

Indicative business case (IBC)

A phase of business case development where individual activities or combinations of activities within the preferred programme are developed further. The purpose of an IBC is to provide decision makers with an early indication of the preferred option for an investment at an activity level.

The IBC will typically include:

An IBC will typically form the first part of a single-stage business case, although for high risk/high complexity activities it may be carried out as a separate phase, followed by a decision by investors whether to continue to detailed business case.

Find out more about the indicative business case

Integrated planning

For the Transport Agency, integrated planning means leading and working with central, regional and local government, private developers and other partners such as Kiwi Rail and port companies, to bring land use planning, and transport planning and investment together to deliver an affordable transport system that supports a growing economy, safe and vibrant communities and a healthy environment, now and in the future.

Interdependency

 A system describes interdependent relationships. Economic or social activity generally leads to increased transport and land use demands. Facilitating those demands may reinforce increased economic or social demands. Different parts of the transport network may also be interdependent. A highway capacity improvement in one location may lead to increased demand upstream or downstream, or demands on other parts of the road network. Similarly, a public transport improvement may lead to less highway travel. These system interdependencies must be understood if the full implications of an intervention are to be identified.

Intervention

Any action or change that is designed to impact positively on the transport system. This is used to refer collectively to a broad range of actions or changes, including but not limited to policy and regulation, infrastructure, services, land use, demand management or other system optimisations.

Intervention hierarchy

Related to the value scale that has to be given to each type of intervention. For National Land Transport Fund investments, that means alternative and option selection should start with lowest cost alternatives and options before considering higher cost alternatives and options. The hierarchy considers integrated planning first, followed by demand management, then best use of existing network, and lastly, new infrastructure.

Investment Assessment Framework (IAF)

Applications for National Land Transport Fund (NLTF) investment funding are assessed using the IAF, to ensure that the investment will be cost effective and aligned to the strategic priorities of the government, as outlined in the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport (GPS).

The IAF uses two assessment factors:

Investment decision gate

The point at which an organisation makes a formal decision whether to continue to develop an investment proposal to the next stage.

Investment gates are normally required after each phase of business case development before progressing to the next appropriate phase, and prior to implementation.

It follows that the number of gates will vary depending on the exact business case development path followed by each investment; low complexity/risk investments may only require investment decision gates following the strategic case and prior to implementation. More complex investments, and particularly large and complex programmes of investments, will require more decisions and hence need more investment decision gates.  

Before deciding whether to continue to support an investment proposal from the National Land Transport Programme (NLTP), the NZ Transport Agency will make an assessment, which includes determining:

Investment logic mapping and investment logic map (ILM)

An investment logic map, often called an ILM, is a single page depiction of an investment story. It sets out the problem statements, benefits, strategic responses and changes necessary to deliver a particular business outcome.  

Investment Logic Mapping is used to develop investment logic maps, and is a structured way of reaching agreement on problems and the benefits of addressing them, and testing the rationale for potential investment with key stakeholders. Investment logic mapping involves a series of workshops, led by a facilitator (who may or may not be an accredited ILM facilitator), and involving key stakeholders. Usually, it comprises two workshops:

  • a problem and consequences workshop
  • an outcomes and benefits workshop.

The outputs of the workshops are an investment logic map and a benefits map, both of which are flowcharts that show the underpinning logic of investing to solve a problem. Using ILM, even the most complex investments can be communicated clearly on a single page.

Find out more about investment logic mapping

Investment objectives

The intended outcomes or goals of an investment – what the investment is aiming to achieve. Investment objectives are stated so as to make them SMART, that is: specific, measureable, achievable, realistic and time-bound. Setting good investment objectives is a critical part of a business case and informs the later assessment of potential options.

See also Objective

Investment partners

The organisations that are investing or co-investing in a project. In the Business Case Approach (BCA), investment partners may include approved organisations, the Transport Agency and any other co-investors. In early stages of the BCA, these organisations are potential investors, as there is no guarantee they will invest funds in a project.

Investment story

The investment story is a narrative about why it is worth investing in something – in the context of the National Land Transport Programme, it is about solving a transport-related problem. It should be compelling, in plain-language and able to be understood by laypeople, not just transport experts.

Investors

See Investment partners

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Key performance indicators (KPIs)

An indicator that has been selected to measure whether a benefit expected from an investment has been delivered. The KPIs must be directly attributable to the investment. To help identify indicators and measures, the Transport Agency has developed a framework for investment performance measurement. This is intended as a guide, and lists the most commonly used measures across a wide range of outcome types relevant to transport.

Find out more about the framework for investment performance measurement [PDF, 693 KB]

Land transport

Transport of people and freight on land by any means, and the infrastructure, goods and services facilitating that transport. Includes coastal shipping and associated infrastructure.

Land Transport Management Act 2003 (LTMA)

The LTMA provides the legal framework for managing and funding land transport activities. The purpose of the LTMA is to contribute to the aim of achieving an affordable, integrated, safe, responsive and sustainable land transport system.

Read the Land Transport Management Act 2003 (external link)

Local Government Act 2002 (LGA)

The legislation that provides the framework and powers under which New Zealand’s local authorities operate.

Read the Local Government Act 2002 (external link)

Long Term Strategic View (LTSV)

This document sets out the Transport Agency’s perspective on the future demands and pressures that are likely to shape the issues and opportunities facing the land transport system. It identifies the material impacts they will create, and sets out how we believe we will need to respond to those impacts over the near and longer term. The LTSV will enable the Transport Agency to work more effectively with our partners to shape the future of the transport system and the contribution it makes to wider social and economic outcomes across New Zealand.

Read the Long Term Strategic View

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Maintenance programme

An organisation’s approved maintenance, operations and renewal activities, which continue to meet the agreed customer levels of service (CLoS). Maintenance programmes can be core or enhanced. Core maintenance programmes refer to work required to continue pre-determined and appropriate CLoS. Enhanced maintenance programmes refer to continuing existing appropriate CLoS at a higher cost due to an external factor (generally for a short, defined period).

See also Continuous programme

Management case

Assesses whether a proposal is achievable and able to be delivered. It tests project planning, governance structure, risk management, communications and stakeholder management, benefits realisation and assurance. The management case is usually a key part of the single-stage business case or detailed business case.

Multi-criteria analysis (MCA)

A tool that can be used to compare and evaluate alternatives and options in a longlist to produce  a shortlist, from which a recommended programme or preferred option is identified. It is generally used during the programme business case and single-stage business case (or indicative business case) phases of the Business Case Approach. A less formal or structured approach may work just as well for less complex programmes.

National Land Transport Fund (NLTF)

A dedicated fund for maintaining and developing local and national transport services, administered by the Transport Agency and distributed through the National Land Transport Programme. The fund was established under section 10 of the Land Transport Management Act 2003.

National Land Transport Programme (NLTP)

The NLTP is issued every three years and contains all the land transport activities, including public transport, road maintenance and improvement, and walking and cycling activities, that the Transport Agency anticipates funding over the next three years. It reflects the priorities of the government, as outlined in the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport (GPS). It includes investment in projects and programmes with local authorities and other investment partners, state highways, road policing, road safety, research and emergency works.

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Objective

An objective is a statement of a result that is to be achieved, usually within a specific timeframe and with available resources. Objectives are used in a number of ways for business case development. Investment objectives are the specific results that are sought from a particular business case, either at a programme level or an intervention level. Other objectives are likely to be external to a business case, and may relate to the overarching goals or aims of the organisation, government or both. They are stated as outcomes, not as specific activities or interventions.

Examples of relevant objectives could include:

  • a regional objective to reduce deaths and serious injuries from road crashes by a particular time and amount
  • a national objective for councils experiencing high population growth to maintain the amount of land available for development above a certain level
  • a local authority objective to increase the transport choices available to transport system users within a city, by a specific date.

See also Investment objectives

One Network Road Classification (ONRC)

A road network classification for commuting, freight and tourist journeys. It also provides customer levels of service attributes for resilience, travel-time reliability and roughness. ONRC divides New Zealand’s roads into six categories based on how busy they are, whether they connect to important destinations, or are the only route available:

  • national
  • arterial
  • regional
  • primary collector
  • secondary collector
  • access.

Find out more about ONRC

Opportunity

In the context of a business case, an opportunity typically refers to a set of circumstances which make it possible to further the goals and objectives of an organisation.

Opportunities are closely related to problems. The term ‘opportunity’ is often used together with ‘problem’ to refer to a ‘problem or opportunity’ as the situation, issue or driver that has given rise to a perceived need for change. It is important that the problem elements of cause and consequence are still fully explored when identifying an opportunity, as these are essential areas of understanding to develop a robust business case.

Typically, the problem statements and benefits need to be considered together to fully understand the ‘problem or opportunity’.

Optioneering

To ‘engineer’ an option, that is, to consider various options in depth and compare, contrast and score them to find the best option. 

Options

Options represent different ways to achieve an outcome or objective. They are often confused with alternatives but, in this context, they have different definitions. Alternatives are the broader level of an intervention, whereas options are more detailed. For example, if it had been decided that the best way (the favoured alternative) to address a particular problem was to improve an intersection for safety or efficiency reasons, options could include simple rearrangement of geometry or sight lines, building a roundabout, installing traffic signals, or grade separation.

Options considered and shortlisted should include a do-nothing option and/or a do-minimum option (where only already planned work such as maintenance is carried out).

See also Alternatives, Preferred option

Outcomes

The result of a change (action or intervention). Examples include:

  • improved customer experience
  • a safer transport system
  • a more efficient transport system
  • a more liveable city.

Outputs

The product, change or solution that is implemented to achieve an objective. Examples of outputs include:

  • a new or improved public transport service
  • a replacement bridge deck
  • a new road
  • a new transport policy, for example to manage travel demand.

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Point of entry (PoE)

The first step in the Business Case Approach (BCA), where the problem owner develops an initial view of the potential problem or opportunity, and reviews existing information so an informed decision can be made about what phase the business case should start at and how it should progress through the BCA.

Find out more about the point of entry

Preferred option

The preferred option is typically the one with the highest, risk adjusted net present value (NPV: the present value of an investment’s expected benefits minus the costs of acquiring the investment), based on all costs, benefits and risks having been quantified and valued robustly.

Where an option has significant intangible benefits, these can out-weigh the difference in NPV between this and alternative options. These considerations should be evaluated at the same time as trade-off discussions. For example, an option that isn’t lowest cost, or doesn’t deliver against all objectives, may be chosen as the preferred option because it has a more acceptable risk level than a lower-cost option that meets objectives.

The preferred option must be supported by robust analysis and be articulated in a clear, compelling way to explain why this is the ‘right’ option.

Problem

In the context of the Business Case Approach it is the issue that has been identified that may lead to a business case for investment to address the problem. There are various ways the problem could come to light, for example:

  • something entirely new (an emerging issue) is identified through monitoring, customer feedback or another source
  • a council or other stakeholder identifies a service level agreement (SLA) isn’t being fulfilled, or an existing activity isn’t delivering value for money
  • a review of documents, such as activity management plans (AMPs), by local government reveals that an investment might be required
  • a need for investment is indicated in a national, regional or local strategic plan or policy.

See also Problem statement , Opportunity

Problem owner

The person (or organisation) who has identified the business problem or opportunity, and who initiates the Business Case Approach (BCA).

Problem statement

A problem is the reason action needs to be considered. Problems are usually stated in negative terms and are made up of two parts – cause and consequence (or effect). The problem statement or statements are critical to understanding the need for an investment and need to be stated at a level that enables the reader to get a sense of the significance of the investment.

A problem statement is a brief statement (usually a single sentence) that summarises the cause and consequence of a problem. It is typically supported by a brief explanation that provides further detail of the causes and consequences. In identifying problems, it is important to get to the root cause so that it can be addressed effectively, otherwise the problem is likely to continue occurring.

Problem statements are developed during the strategic case phase of the Business Case Approach (BCA), but are reviewed and refined throughout the development of the business case as the causes and consequences of the problem are better understood.

See also Investment logic mapping and investment logic map

Problem trajectory

The problem trajectory helps ‘unpack’ a problem by analysing and considering the component parts in detail. It is useful in problem definition sessions for testing initial views of a problem and determining consequences and underlying causes.

Programme

Interrelated and complementary combination of activities that address a problem. A programme can span more than one work category and more than one activity class, for example a programme could include a road improvement activity and public transport improvement activities.

Programme business case (PBC)

The Business Case Approach phase in which options and alternatives to address the underlying or root causes of the  problem are identified, and a recommended solution is proposed, which could include a broad mix of activities that might be delivered by multiple parties over a period of time. PBCs are generally developed only for investments that have a higher complexity or risk and could involve more than one transport mode or other interventions. It reduces risk and ensures all appropriate options are considered.

Find out more about the programme business case

Project

An activity that has a defined start, end and scope.

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Regional land transport plan (RLTP)

Regional transport committees prepare RLTPs every six years to set out all the transport activities the region intends to progress over the next six years. They feed into the National Land Transport Programme (NLTP), but also include aspects outside of the NLTP.

Regional transport committees (RTCs)

These committees prepare regional land transport strategies and regional land transport plans, and provide advice as requested by the regional council. Membership is specified by section 105(2) of the Land Transport Management Act 2003, and must include representatives from the regional council, local councils in the region, the Transport Agency and other stakeholders.

Results alignment

This part of the Investment Assessment Framework assesses and confirms the relevance and significance of the proposed investment in relation to the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport (GPS) and customer levels of service (CLoS).

Risk

A risk is a variance (either positive or negative) from an expected outcome. Risks usually apply to the delivery of a project. They are within the project team’s control to manage (avoid, minimise or mitigate) to achieve the defined scope and expected benefits. Risks differ from uncertainties.

Root cause

A root cause is a fundamental reason for the occurrence of a problem – either now, or in the future. Essentially, a root cause represents a fundamental process or system that is failing or that doesn’t exist, which needs to be addressed if the problem is to be avoided or prevented from recurring.

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Single-stage business case (SSBC)

A phase of business case development where individual activities or combinations of activities within the preferred programme are developed further. A SSBC combines the steps that are typically carried out in separate indicative business case and detailed business case phases for high-risk or high-complexity investments.

The SSBC confirms the strategic and economic cases, and develops the financial, commercial and management cases prior to implementation.

A SSBC does not require a formal decision for the release of funds at the end of shortlisting options, however the problem owner may still elect to seek an investment signal from the NZ Transport Agency at this point, to assist in managing investment risk.

Find out more about the single-stage business case

Solution

A solution describes the changes that must be made by the organisation to deliver benefits,  including details of how the strategic intervention will actually happen. Unlike a strategic intervention, it is able to be specified in terms of time and cost. Solutions may include any physical assets that are required to allow the changes to occur. 

 Stakeholders

Investment partners, people who have the most knowledge of a subject and/or represent an interested or affected party, for example a local authority, community group or iwi. They will be consulted at various stages of business case development.

Strategic assessment

The strategic assessment uses robust tools and methodology to determine quickly and at low cost:

  • what the problem is and whether it has a consequence that needs to be addressed
  • what outcomes will be gained from any potential investment
  • what potential benefits will arise from investing, and
  • whether there is stakeholder agreement to proceed or not to proceed.

The strategic assessment is initially developed as part of the strategic case, but is reviewed to ensure it is still fit for purpose at every stage in the development of the business case.

Strategic case (SC)

This is the Business Case Approach phase where the problem owner, together with other stakeholders, develops their understanding of the problem and whether the benefits of investing in addressing it are justified. The strategic case is made up of a strategic assessment (problem and consequence) and strategic context (assumptions, environment and interdependencies). Workshops, such as investment logic mapping, or other consultation may need to be undertaken to ensure agreement between stakeholders.

Find out more about the strategic case

Strategic context

The strategic context is the alignment of the potential benefits from a proposed investment with the business problem owner’s priorities, regional and national priorities, other programmes and strategies, and other organisations’ priorities (if relevant).

It includes:

  • agreed assumptions or views of the future, including transport and population growth, economic and industry change statistics
  • relevant objectives from overarching strategic documents, such as the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport (GPS), the Long-term Strategic View or regional strategies, to position the outcomes sought within the strategic assessment against wider national, regional and local outcomes
  • the proposing organisation’s objectives.

The strategic context is part of the strategic case, but is reviewed to ensure it is still fit for purpose at every stage in the development of the business case.

System

Transport activities are derived demands, which means they do not happen for their own sake but form part of a wider system that includes land use, economic and social activity, technology and other system pressures. To understand a problem or opportunity it is important to understand the dynamics of this system, which may include positive and negative feedback.

Transport Investment Online (TIO)

The Transport Agency’s web-based funding allocation system. It is the key source of project information and a record of investment decisions made in the National Land Transport Programme (NLTP). All activities funded through the NLTP are recorded in TIO, including the expected benefits and long-term outcomes from each decision.

Access TIO (external link)

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Uncertainties

An uncertainty is an event or change in conditions. Uncertainties usually relate to the problem or investment need, and are usually external factors that lie outside the project team’s control. Uncertainties can result in a different future state from that anticipated or assumed in the business, and can impact the need for an investment and/or require a change in the response to a problem.

Examples of uncertainties include technological developments, major shifts in markets and economic conditions, the behaviour of other organisations, changes in demographics including variance from growth forecasts, or events related to the natural environment. If such events occur they can have both positive and negative impacts on benefit delivery. Uncertainties are distinct from risks

See also Uncertainty log

Uncertainty log

Records assumptions and uncertainties that may have an impact on the investment proposal. For example, a major housing development in the locality may be on the books but it’s not clear when it will happen. Make assumptions about what some of the effects may be if a proposal goes ahead, such as changes to road, rail, or ports.

Value for money

Value for money requires the delivery of desired outcomes where the net present value of benefits exceeds the net present value of costs. The benefits and costs should take into account intangible factors where possible. An intervention is ‘value for money’ if the national welfare after an intervention is greater than before the intervention. Delivering value for money is a statutory requirement.

Works

The individual elements that make up an activity.

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