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Acronym Term Definition
abutment

An end support of a bridge or similar structure.

accommodation hub

Area near an existing Nga Haerenga NZ Cycle Trail, with accommodation options, that is likely to be a destination for cyclists using the trail.

activity

A land transport output or capital project, including transport services, promotion or infrastructure operations and maintenance.

activity class

A grouping of similar activities, as defined in the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport.

AMP activity management plan

An activity management plan prepared in accordance with clause 2 of schedule 10 of the Local Government Act 2002 for approved organisations, or Cabinet Office circular CO (19) 6: Investment Management and Asset Performance in the State Services, for Crown entities (which include the Transport Agency for state highways, and the Department of Conservation). Activity management planning considers the assets in the context of the services they are supporting and clarifies the purpose for holding the asset. The goal of good asset management is to support the delivery of a level of service (whatever the service may be) in the most cost-effective manner, taking long term sustainability into account. Activity management plans should be based on the National Asset Management Steering (NAMS) Group's International infrastructure management manual.

administration

The administrative components of activities that are reasonably provided in the delivery of land transport related activities.

alternatives

Alternatives are different means of achieving the same objective as the proposal, either totally or partially replacing the proposal. For example, transport demand management (TDM) programmes are generally alternatives to the provision of road capacity. Alternatives considered can include non-transport solutions or determining if the problem is tangible or significant enough to progress for consideration.

Also see options.

AP annual plan

An annual plan adopted under section 95 of the Local Government Act 2002

area-wide traffic control

A linked system of traffic signals that allows regulation of traffic flow.

assessment

The process, methods or tools used to rate or create an assessment profile under the Transport Agency’s Investment Assessment Framework and appraise a proposal.  It is the term most commonly used for appraisal but sometimes also for evaluation. In the context of this Knowledge Base, assessment is the determination of a profile under the Transport Agency’s Investment Assessment Framework to prioritise activities for inclusion in the National Land Transport Programme.

assessment profile

The rating of an activity under the Transport Agency’s Investment Assessment Framework. This is determined by the assessment of results alignment and cost–benefit appraisal, combined with programme support. It determines the priority order of a proposed investment: whether a proposal should be included in the National Land Transport Profile, as well as their relative priority to other proposals in their activity class.

bailey bridge

A temporary bridge of lattice steel designed for rapid assembly from prefabricated standard parts.

base programme

The underlying programme against which incremental changes in the programme may be considered and assessed.

bridge

A structure designed to carry a road or path over an obstacle by spanning it. This includes culverts with a cross-sectional area greater than or equal to 3.4 square metres.

capacity constraints

When demand, in terms of volume or load, routinely exceeds operating capacity.

capital project

An individual land transport-related activity of a capital nature (capex) as defined under section 5 of the Land Transport Management Act 2003. Includes creating new or improving existing infrastructure so that the service potential (remaining life, safety, efficiency etc) increases from what was in place.

Also see operating or maintenance activity.

CO2 Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide

carriageway

That portion of the road devoted particularly to the use of travelling vehicles, including shoulders.

cattle stop

A grid across the road to prevent stock movement.

chevron board

A patterned reflective road sign with chevrons that indicates an abrupt change in road direction.

chip seal

A wearing course (upper layer in a roadway) consisting of a layer or layers of chips originally spread onto the pavement over a film of freshly sprayed binder and subsequently rolled into place.

combination of activities

Two or more activities from the same activity class or two or more activity classes, eg programme, group or package.

commercial case

Examines the commercial viability of a preferred option and the consenting and procurement strategy that will be used to engage the market. It presents evidence on risk allocation and transfer as well as details of responsibilities for delivering different aspects of the programme.

commitment

The balance of financial allocation required to complete an approved activity in the current and future years.

Communities at Risk Register

The Communities at Risk Register is a register developed by the Transport Agency to identify communities that are over-represented in terms of road safety risk. The register ranks communities by local authority area based on the Safer journeys areas of concern (ie restraints, speed).

concession agreement

An agreement or a suite of agreements approved under section 56 of the Land Transport Management Act where a party has been granted rights over a public road that are normally the domain of the Transport Agency or road controlling authority.

concession road

A formed or unformed road to which a concession agreement applies.

concessionaire

A person who has a concession agreement with a public road controlling authority.

conditions precedent

Conditions precedent means that the condition must be fulfilled before the support, endorsement or approval is put into effect. For a funding approval this will mean that no funding will be released until the condition is met.

conditions subsequent

Conditions subsequent means that the condition needs to be fulfilled by a specified time or event, but the decision can be put into effect. For a funding approval this will mean that funding can be released before the condition is met. Often, conditions subsequent will need to be fulfilled before the next funding application for an activity.

congestion

Congestion is where the volume to capacity ratio exceeds 80% for five days per week over at least a one-hour time period that affects at least 1.5 km of a route. For information on the volume to capacity ratio, see appendix A3 of the Economic evaluation manual.

corrugations

Closely spaced ripples on the road surface running across the line of traffic, generally where braking and acceleration of vehicles occurs.

CCO council-controlled organisation

A council-controlled organisation as defined in section 6 of the Local Government Act 2002.

council-controlled trading organisation

A council-controlled organisation as defined in section 6 of the Local Government Act 2002.

CAS Crash Analysis System

The Transport Agency owned database for crash statistics.

C funds Crown funds

Special funding for specific regions and specified activities as appropriated or directed by the government.

cycle lane

A longitudinal strip within a roadway designed for the passage of cyclists.

cycle path

A path that is physically separated from the roadway that is principally designed for, and used by, cyclists.

DSI deaths and serious injuries

Number of deaths and serious injuries. May be reported, estimated or predicted. To avoid confusion if describing estimated or predicted risk, it is described as DSI equivalents.

demand management

A generic classification of activities that encourage more efficient and sustainable travel and transport behaviour. Demand management has the objective of encouraging motor vehicle users to use alternative means of transport when appropriate while also reducing total vehicle kilometres travelled. This includes freight transport as well as personal travel.

demographic pressures

Changes in the demographics of a community or communities, eg changes to the age profile of the region or communities within the region, consolidation of populations such as population decreases in rural areas and those areas immediately surrounding a city or town population as well as increases in urban populations.

economic case

The purpose of the economic case is to demonstrate that the investment proposal optimises value for money. Options are initially assessed in terms of how well they meet investment objectives.  The costs and benefits of short-listed options are then analysed from a national perspective, taking account of all significant welfare impacts (e.g. social, cultural and environmental).

efficient freight supply chains

Moving a volume of freight at the lowest whole of life and transport system cost.

enduring benefits

Expectation that benefits delivered by an activity in response to the potential identified in the strategic fit over the life of the asset or service. In urban and semi-urban areas, transport solutions are often only enduring if they are part of a package of activities balancing demand and supply measures and if they optimise the function of each transport mode taking into account local constraints and opportunities.

environment

The Environment Act 1986 defines environment as including: 

(a) ecosystems and their constituent parts including people and communities; and 

(b) all natural and physical resources; and 

(c) those physical qualities and characteristics of an area that contribute to people’s appreciation of its pleasantness, aesthetic coherence, and cultural and recreational attributes; and 

(d) the social, economic, aesthetic, and cultural conditions which affect the matters stated in paragraphs (a) to (c) or which are affected by those matters.

evaluation

Ex-post review of the impact or performance of an implemented proposal.

extracting maximum value

Extracting maximum value from existing services and infrastructure includes optimising services and the use of existing infrastructure to realise the full potential capacity and benefits.

financial case

Outlines the financial viability of the programme including revenue streams and possible funding sources, demonstrating that the preferred option will result in an affordable and fundable investment.  Affordability analysis is performed from an Agency perspective, and unlike the economic case, is limited to direct financial impacts.

financial year

The 12 months beginning on 1 July and ending on 30 June.

footpath

A path or way principally designed for, and used by, pedestrians.

ford

A shallow place in a watercourse, stream or river where the bed may be crossed by traffic.

freight routes

Connections between freight generators (suppliers of goods) and attractors (freight transport hubs and large manufacturing and trading customers) with traffic volumes of greater than 800 heavy commercial vehicles per day, including:

  • ports
  • airports
  • distribution centres
    areas with a high concentration of firms, i.e. at a local authority level, the number of firms in the local authority area is greater than 2% of the total number of firms in New Zealand

or a route that:

  • handles a volume or value of freight that is greater than 10% above the national total, or
  • handles significant volumes or values of specialised commodities not normally transported on routes, and
  • has no freight transport alternative if the route is closed.
funding allocation

The amount of funding allocated by the Transport Agency for an activity or combination of activities.

funding approval

Approval given by the Transport Agency under section 20 of the Land Transport Management Act.

high growth urban area

Any urban area (as defined by Statistics New Zealand in 2016) that has either:

  • a resident population of over 30,000 people according to the most recent Statistics New Zealand urban area resident population estimates

or

  • at any point in the year a combined resident population and visitor population of over 30,000 people, using the most recent Statistics New Zealand urban area resident population estimates

and:

  • in which the resident population of that urban area is projected to grow by more than 10% between 2013 to 2023, according to the most recent Statistics New Zealand medium urban area population projections for 2013 (base) - 2023.

This definition is from the National Policy Statement on Urban Development Capacity (NPS-UDC) 2016. It is a transitional definition and will be reviewed and amended no later than 31 December 2018.

Areas currently listed as in the NPS-UDC high growth urban areas: 

  • Auckland
  • Christchurch
  • Hamilton
  • New Plymouth
  • Tauranga
  • Queenstown
  • Whangarei.
high-risk rural road

A high-risk rural road is defined in the Transport Agency’s High risk rural road guide (HRRRG) as: 

  • a rural road where the fatal and serious crash rate (personal risk) or crash density (collective risk) is classified as high compared with other roads (HRRRG section 4.4.1 and figures 4-1 and 4-2); and/or 
  • a high or medium-high collective risk and/or high or medium-high personal risk (as defined by KiwiRAP risk maps) (HRRRG section 4.4.2); and/or 
  • a rural road that has features that are likely to increase the potential for fatal or serious injury crashes along a route as determined by the KiwiRAP star rating or RPS, ie 1 or 2 star road or an RPS greater than 10 (HRRRG section 4.4.3); and/or
  • an equivalent process such as the Road Safety Infrastructure Assessment (RISA) where the risk score is greater than 3.0 (HRRRG section 4.4.4).
impact

The contribution made to an objective or outcome, including by a specified activity class or activity classes.

integrated planning

For the Transport Agency, integrated planning means leading and working with central, regional and local government, private developers and other partners such as KiwiRail and port companies, to bring land use planning, and transport planning and investment together, to deliver an affordable transport system that supports a growing economy, safe and vibrant communities and a healthy environment, now and in the future.

key freight routes

Key freight routes handle end to end journeys for connections between major freight generators (suppliers of goods) and attractors (freight transport hubs and large manufacturing and trading customers) including:

  • areas with a high concentration of firms, ie at a local authority level, the number of firms in the local authority area is greater than 3% of the total number of firms in the industry classificatiom
  • ports, airports, and distribution centres that handles a volume, value or weight of freight that is greater than 5% of the national total.
key routes

Key routes are routes providing access to:

  • Markets, areas with:
    - volume or value of freight greater than 10% of the total volume or value of freight in New Zealand; or
    - areas with a high concentration of firms, i.e. at a local authority level, the number of firms in the local authority area is greater than 1% of the total number of firms in New Zealand; or to:
  • Areas of employment, areas with:
    - share of employment greater than 1% of the total number of employees in New Zealand; or to:
    • - Areas of economic growth, areas with:
      - growth in number of firms over the last 5 years is more than 20% above the national average; or
      - growth in number of firms in an industry over the last year is more than 20% above the national average for that industry; or
      - growth in employment over the last 5 years is more than 20% above the national average.
key tourism routes

Routes that have high volumes and/or values of tourism related traffic. Tourism routes: 

  • provide access to tourism areas with forecast tourists (domestic and international visitors) greater than 5 million per annum (eg Waipu to Taupo, Amberley to Ashburton), or 
  • have tourism flows greater than 60% of the total traffic and greater than 1 million tourists per annum or provide access to one of the top five tourism areas outside major urban areas.
large project

An improvement project with a cost equal to or greater than $5 million.

large urban area

Urban areas according Statistics NZ Urban Rural Classification with an estimated resident population of 30,000–99,999 residents. These are currently represented by Whangarei, Hibiscus Coast, Rotorua, Gisborne, Hastings, Napier, New Plymouth, Whanganui, Palmerston North, Porirua, Upper Hutt, Nelson and Invercargill.

Also see urban areas.

local authority

Any territorial authority or regional council within the meaning of the Local Government Act 2002.

LTP long-term plan

Long-term council plan in accordance with section 93 of the Local Government Act 2002.

macroscope

The information required for the ‘notice of requirement’ under the Resource Management Act 1991, reflecting the scope of the preferred option.

major metros

The 2018 Government Policy Statement on Land Transport identifies the following as ‘major metropolitan areas’ for the purposes of land transport planning: 

  • Northern Auckland zone
  • Western Auckland zone
  • Central Auckland zone
  • Southern Auckland zone
  • Hamilton zone
  • Tauranga
  • Porirua zone
  • Upper Hutt zone
  • Lower Hutt zone
  • Wellington zone
  • Christchurch
  • Dunedin (urban area only).

The Transport Agency has identified Queenstown as a specific high growth urban area given similarities in its transport requirements to those in the major metropolitan areas, and therefore the application of the Investment Assessment Framework (IAF) criteria is treated in the same way as major metropolitan areas.

The combined group is referred to as 'major metros' in the IAF criteria.

makes best use of

Fully considers existing services and use of infrastructure and identifies opportunities for change without significant additional expenditure.

management case

Assesses whether a proposal is achievable and able to be delivered. It tests project planning, governance structure, risk management, communications and stakeholder management benefits realisation and assurance.

The management case is usually a key part of the single-stage business case or detailed business case.

marker posts

Posts placed at the edge of the road, equipped with a reflector to assist night driving.

medium growth urban area

Any urban area (as defined by Statistics New Zealand in 2016) that has either:

  • has resident population of over 30,000 people according to the most recent Statistics New Zealand urban area resident population estimates

and:

  • in which the resident population of that urban area is projected to grow by between 5% and 10% between 2013 to 2023, according to the most recent Statistics New Zealand medium urban area population projections for 2013(base)-2023.

This definition is from the National Policy Statement on Urban Development Capacity 2016. It is a transitional definition, and will be reviewed and amended no later than 31 December 2018.

 Areas currently listed as in the NPS-UDC Medium Growth Urban Areas:

  • Dunedin
  • Gisborne
  • Kapiti
  • Marlborough
  • Napier-Hastings
  • Nelson
  • Palmerston North
  • Rotorua
  • Wellington.
MBT mobile breath test

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MVR motor vehicle register

Register to record information about vehicles used on New Zealand roads and the persons responsible for their use.

 See Motor Vehicle Register for details.

national activities

Activities managed or delivered nationally by the NZ Transport Agency.

N funds nationally distributed funds

The balance of funds in the National Land Transport Fund after accounting for R (regionally distributed) and C (Crown) funds. N funds are allocated to the highest priority activities in each activity class across New Zealand, having accounted for R and C fund allocations.

operating or maintenance activity

An individual land transport-related activity of an operating  or maintenance nature (opex), ie operating or maintaining existing infrastructure so that the service potential (remaining life, safety, efficiency etc) remains the same or similar to what previously expected of that asset.

Also see capital project.

option

Variations on the proposal, including scale and scope of components. All realistic options shall be evaluated to identify the optimal economic solution.

output

Goods or services delivered by an activity or combination of activities.

passing bay

A widened length on a bridge or road at which vehicles travelling in opposing directions can pass each other.

pavement

The road structure that is constructed on the subgrade and supports the traffic loading.

pedestrian crossing

A specially marked area giving right of way to pedestrians crossing the road.

perceived risk

The risk transport system users or potential users believe exists, and that affects their use of the system ie the perceived danger of different transport modes whether through direct use or non-use

PAR Post-approval review

Transport Agency review of previous project funding decisions made to ensure consistency and robustness of funding decisions.

pothole

A hole in the pavement, frequently rounded in shape and greater than 70mm in diameter, resulting from loss of pavement material.

predicted risk

Determined by prediction models based on traffic and road characteristics which have been developed in Transport Agency research projects, some of which have been included in the Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM). Further references include New Zealand Road Assessment Programme, KiwiRAP and Infrastructure Risk Rating (IRR).

productivity benefits

The benefits derived from improvements in productivity impacts of the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport (being a net increase in outputs of production over inputs).

professional services

Technical inputs to an activity undertaken by persons skilled in fields relevant to that activity.

programme

Combination of interrelated and complementary activities that, when delivered in a coordinated manner, produce synergies. The activities include more than one work category and more than one activity class. Continuous programmes for road maintenance and public transport operations fit into this category.

Programmes can also be outcomes-based to achieve an agreed outcome and focused on issues that would not be addressed adequately by individual stand-alone activities. An example is the Safe Networks Programme, which takes place across local road and state highway activity classes.

provincial growth fund

A government fund focussed on growing regional economies, improving social outcomes and environmental sustainability. The fund can invest in enabling infrastructure projects that will lift productivity and grow jobs in NZ regions (excluding the three main centres of Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch).

recreational cycling

The riding of cycles for enjoyment or fitness (ie the main purpose of the trip is the ride itself).

RC Regional council

A regional council within the meaning of the Local Government Act 2002.

RLTP regional land transport plan

A regional land transport plan, prepared under Part 2 of the Land Transport Management Act.

RPTP regional public transport plan

A plan which specifies how the regional council intends to give effect to the public transport service components of the regional land transport plan that applies to the region. The contents and management of the plan is defined by Part 5 of the Land Transport Management Act 2003.

RTC regional transport committee

A regional transport committee established under section 105 of the LTMA. Or in the case of Auckland, the governing body of Auckland Transport or a joint regional transport committee that includes Auckland Transport as a member.

R funds regionally distributed funds

Funds from a 5 cent per litre increase in fuel excise duty and an equivalent increase in road user charges for light vehicles, to be distributed regionally on the basis of population (with Auckland receiving 35 percent of the total collected) which applied for 10 years from April 2005. R funds were to be allocated to the highest priority projects in a region ahead of N (nationally distributed) funds.

results alignment

The alignment of an investment proposal’s key transport issues with the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport.

RUC road user charges

A charge in accordance with the Road User Charges Act 1977, to be paid for vehicles over 3.5 tonnes manufacturer’s gross laden weight, and for vehicles powered by a fuel not taxed at source.

See Road user charges (RUC) for details.

roughometer

An instrument that measures the roughness of a road's surface.

roundabout

An intersection of two or more carriageways at a common level where all traffic travels around a central island, in lieu of direct crossings.

route marker

A sign indicating, by means of a number, device or colour, the course of a particular route.

Safer Journeys

The government's strategy to guide improvements in road safety over the period 2010–2020. 

Refer to http://www.transport.govt.nz/saferjourneys/Pages/default.aspx for details.

Safer Journeys action plan

An action plan to develop and implement initiatives over a specified period for Safer Journeys

Safer Journeys area of high concern

The high priority areas identified in Safer Journeys action plan where the greatest improvements could be made over the period covered by the Safer Journeys strategy. These include:

  • reducing alcohol/drug impaired driving
  • increasing the safety of young drivers
  • safe roads and roadside
  • safe speeds
  • increasing the safety of motorcycling.
Safer Journeys area of medium concern

The medium priorities that need to be addressed but relative to the high priorities require less change in policy or practice to improve safety in Safer Journeys action plan. These include:

  • improving the safety of the light vehicle fleet
  • safe walking and cycling
  • improving the safety of heavy vehicles
  • reducing the impact of fatigue
  • addressing distraction
  • reducing the impact of high risk drivers.
severe congestion

When the volume to capacity ratio exceeds 100% over at least 1 hour for 5 days per week on at least 3 km of a route and the average annual daily traffic (AADT) is greater than 20,000 vehicles per day.
For information on the volume to capacity ratio, refer to appendix A3 of the Transport Agency’s Economic evaluation manual.

shared path

A path that is physically separated from the roadway that is intended for the passage of pedestrians, cyclists, riders of mobility devices, and riders of wheeled recreation devices.

shared zone

A length of roadway intended to be used by pedestrians and vehicles (where vehicles must give way to pedestrians).

shoulder

That portion of the carriageway outside the traffic lanes.

sight rail

A timber or metal rail (usually reflective or painted white) placed to highlight a change in road direction or some other hazard.

slow vehicle bay

A shoulder constructed with sufficient width and strength to allow slow vehicles to pull aside to permit other vehicles to pass.

small project

An improvement project with a construction/ implementation cost of more than $1 million and less than $5 million.

Also see low cost, low risk improvements.

special purpose road

A local road that was historically accepted as a special purpose road in terms of section 104 (now repealed) of the Transit New Zealand Act 1989 (renamed the Government Roading Powers Act 1989 from 1 July 2008).

strategic case

The strategic case determines whether an investment is required. It demonstrates the case for change and is made up of a strategic assessment (problem and consequence) and strategic context (assumptions, environment and interdependencies, to show how the proposal will further the aims and objectives of the organisation.

substructure

The piers and abutments (including wing walls) of a bridge, which support the superstructure.

subway

A structure constructed to permit the passage of pedestrians, cycles or stock beneath the road.

superstructure

The bridge deck and beams that are supported by the piers and abutments.

supplementary funds

Funding contributions that are additional to the contributions of the Transport Agency and standard approved organisation local share. They usually reflect third party benefits.

technical reviews

The review of outputs and general operations of road controlling authorities that receive funds from the NLTF.

TA territorial authority

A territorial authority within the meaning of the Local Government Act 2002. This is usually taken to refer to a city council or a district council.

thriving regions

Regions where a well-connected, safe and resilient transport system improves the productivity and economic prospects of the region and the living standards and opportunities of those living there.

tourism

Increased ability of international visitors to travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes in a safe and efficient manner.

traffic lane

A portion of the carriageway allotted for the use of a single line of vehicles.

traffic management

Activities/devices that facilitate management of the road network.

In relation to a public transport service, includes:
(a) the capacity of transport infrastructure to accommodate the vehicles or other modes of transport operated as part of the service; and
(b) the compatibility of the transport infrastructure intended to support the service with vehicles or other modes of transport operated as part of the service.

transport hub

Area where multiple transport modes and services connect. In the context of the Nga Haerenga NZ Cycle trail, this means an area near an existing NZ Cycle Trail or accommodation hub that is likely to be used as a port to get transport (bus, plane etc.) in and out of the region of the existing trail.

TIO Transport Investment Online

The Transport Agency's web-based funding allocation system. It is the key source of project information and a record of investment decisions made in the National Land Transport Programme (NLTP). All activities funded through the NLTP are recorded in TIO, including the expected benefits and long-term outcomes from each decision.

utlility cycling

Cycling done mainly to get to an activity at the journey’s end, such as commuting trips to work, education, or shops. Utility cycling is used as a proxy for walking and cycling’s contribution to economic growth outcomes.

valuation of economic growth

Economic growth and productivity is defined in the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport (GPS); research is required to determine and value the GPS impacts to the delivery of economic growth.

value for money

Using resources economically, efficiently, effectively and equitably, with due regard for the total costs and benefits of an investment, and its contributions to the outcomes the Transport Agency and its investment partners are trying to achieve. In addition, the principle of value for money does not necessarily mean selecting the lowest cost option but rather the best possible outcome for the whole-of-life cost of the investment.

wing wall

A retaining wall extending a bridge abutment.

work category

A type of activity – not confined to a particular activity class; for example, new roads (work category 323) appears in:

  • activity class 12: local road improvements
  • activity class 13: state highway improvements.
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