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Research Report 382 Using risk analysis to assess treatments for frost and ice

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The comparative effects on skid resistance of the two commonly used treatments for frost and ice on New Zealand roads, mineral grit and the anti-icing/de-icing agent calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), were examined through an on-road test programme. This involved locked-wheel braking tests on selected test sites under a variety of conditions using an instrumented car. Tests were conducted for various treatments, including dry (no treatment), wet, application of grit and application of CMA. Road surface types included fine and coarse chipseal, open-graded porous asphalt, asphaltic concrete and slurry seal. Comparisons of skid resistance were made between the different surfaces and different road surface treatments. Additional laboratory tests were conducted to assess the comparative variation of skid resistance with time following treatment. Typical traffic levels were also obtained for the test sites. These were combined with the changes in skid resistance for the different treatments at different times to provide an...

Research report 415 Case studies and best-practice guidelines for risk management on road networks

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The requirements of the 2002 Local Government Act have led to a greater emphasis on local authorities having a holistic approach to risk management. However, it is widely considered that compared with other disciplines, the practical application of risk management is still lacking in the area of transportation. This research project aimed to establish a comprehensive yet simple best-practice guideline for risk management in the transport area. This was achieved through a literature review and a pilot study across nine representative transport authorities throughout New Zealand in November 2008. These guidelines provide the minimum requirements of an integrated risk framework, and also describe in detail ways to overcome some practical obstacles to the effective use of the risk management process.

Research Report 366 Earthquake performance of long span arch culverts

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Dynamic numerical modelling has been carried out in 2005–2007 to investigate the seismic performance of an 11.66 m span, 7.29 m rise, high profile arch culvert. The horizontal components of three earthquakes were used, scaled for Wellington conditions for 1:500 and 1:2500 year recurrence intervals. The effects of a number of parameters were tested by varying their values. These parameters were the soil shear strength, dilation angle and stiffness (measured as the shear wave velocity), the cover over the culvert, the presence and size of concrete stiffening beams and whether or not slipping occurred between the soil and the culvert. Seismic deformation, structural bending moments and axial forces were examined, along with their relationship to earthquake peak ground velocity, peak ground acceleration and the Arias Intensity. It was found that the peak ground velocity and therefore the ovalling of the culvert were not useful in design.

Research Report 539 A new vehicle loading standard for road bridges in New Zealand

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Integrated land use and transport systems , Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research report proposes a new vehicle loading standard for the design and evaluation of road bridges and other highway infrastructure in New Zealand. It is based upon a literature review of current traffic loading and bridge evaluation specifications in New Zealand and overseas, as well as a review of studies into the economic aspects of bridge design loadings and the economic benefits of increasing the mass limits of heavy vehicles in Australia and New Zealand.

Research Report 296 Natural hazard road risk management – part III: performance criteria

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Road networks are lifelines for the community and are essential for the social and economic well-being of New Zealand. Natural hazards cause considerable damage to road networks from time to time and cause widespread disruption to transportation, leading to significant repair costs to road controlling authorities, access difficulties for emergency services, and disruption to road users and the community at large. Currently, we have no guidelines for setting levels of service or performance measures for roads which are subject to natural hazard events. As a result, roads which are subject to natural hazard events have been managed mainly reactively, which has led to high ongoing expenditure in terms of damage costs, disruption costs and adverse effects to the community. This is the third part of a three part research project developed between 2002 and 2005 concerning the management of risks to road networks from natural hazards.

Research Report 355 Engineering lifelines and transport – should New Zealand be doing it better?

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This project examined New Zealand engineering lifelines activity, its level of integration in road controlling authority management practices, and its relationship to the resilience of roading networks to natural hazards. It examined and compared lifelines practice at three levels – international, New Zealand regions and individual road controlling authorities. Relative risk exposures arising from natural hazards and their impacts on regions were assessed at a qualitative level, highlighting the importance of a comprehensive lifelines approach throughout much of the country. The project found there were many gaps in practice and that it was difficult to align the effectiveness of expenditure with measures of increased resilience. These gaps present opportunities for improvement, which are described with recommended actions. These include further development of asset management plans, establishing resilience measures, better use of technology for associating hazard events with infrastructural assets, more comprehensive risk management practice and a more proactive approach to...

Research report 409 Benchmarking the readiness of road controlling authorities to meet their obligations under the Civil Defence and Emergency Management (CDEM) Act 2002

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research develops an assessment tool and provides initial findings of whether RCAs are meeting their obligations under the Civil Defence and Emergency Management (CDEM) Act 2002, which states that the road network, among the other lifelines utilities, should be able to 'function to the fullest possible extent during and after an emergency'. A self-assessment benchmarking tool was developed and implemented in order to allow road controlling authorities (RCAs) to evaluate themselves and develop plans for improving their emergency response and recovery planning arrangements. Based on our study of the CDEM Act 2002, we conceptualised a multi-criteria assessment, which included three main expectations in terms of meeting the CDEM Act 2002 requirements. The self-assessment tool was applied to a case study, which gathered 26 valid responses from participant RCAs. The results revealed that most of the participant RCAs met the requirements of the CDEM Act 2002.

Research Report 276 Developing a hazard risk assessment framework for the New Zealand state highway network

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The New Zealand Civil Defence Emergency Management (CDEM) Act (2002) requires all lifelines, including the road network, to be able to function to the fullest possible extent during and after an emergency, and that lifeline providers have plans for such continuity that can be made available to the Director of CDEM if requested.

Research Report 078 Seismic testing and behaviour of a 1936-designed reinforced-concrete bridge

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The laboratory testing and inelastic computer analysis are described for a 1936-designed bridge which is typical of many of the older, reinforced-concrete, multi-span bridges in New Zealand. The structure has plain-round (undeformed) reinforcing bars and anchorage details, shear strength, and column-transverse reinforcement that are potentially deficient. Despite the suspected seismic deficiencies, the testing and analysis of the bridge show that its seismic performance will be good.

Research Report 077 Seismic evaluation and retrofit technology for bridges

Published: | Category: Natural hazard risk management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Despite recent progress by the structural engineering profession in addressing bridge seismic risks, several areas exist where improvements in bridge evaluation and retrofit practices are needed. This report reviews the common seismic deficiencies of bridges, procedures and criteria for the seismic evaluation of bridges, and the engineering techniques which have been used, up to 1996, for retrofitting bridge seismic deficiencies. Information on seismic deficiencies, retrofit techniques, and related research has been summarised in tabular form.
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