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Research Report 281 Effect on pavement wear of increased mass limits for heavy vehicles – concluding report

Published: | Category: Activity management , CAPTIF , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The road transport industry in New Zealand has been lobbying for increases in the allowable mass limits for heavy vehicles on the basis that this would give increased efficiency and benefits to the economy. Some of the proposals for increased mass limits involve increased axle load limits which would clearly lead to additional pavement wear. Road controlling authorities, while sharing the industry’s aims for increased efficiencies in the road transport system, are concerned that any additional pavement wear generated by higher axle loads will be paid for, so that the standard of the roading network can be maintained. At present (2005) Road User Charges (RUCs) are based on the fourth power law, which was developed from the AASHO road test in the United States in the 1950s. The pavements and vehicles used for that test differ considerably from those in use in New Zealand today.

Research Report 338 Developing school-based cycle trains in New Zealand

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

A cycle train is similar in approach to the ‘walking school bus’ – adult volunteer ‘conductors’ cycle along a set route to school, collecting children from designated ‘train stops’ along the way. They are well established in Belgium and are beginning to appear in the United Kingdom. Previous research in New Zealand found a high level of interest in the cycle train concept, leading us to design and conduct a trial for implementing cycle train networks here.

Research Report 396 Public transport network planning: a guide to best practice in NZ cities

Published: | Category: Sustainable land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research explores the potential for the ‘network-planning’ approach to the design of public transport to improve patronage of public transport services in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. Network planning, which mimics the ‘go-anywhere’ convenience of the car by enabling passengers to transfer between services on a simple pattern of lines, has achieved impressive results in some European and North American cities, where patronage levels have grown considerably and public subsidies are used more efficiently.

Research Report 510 Evaluation of the C-roundabout an improved multi-lane roundabout design for cyclists

Published: | Category: Safety, security and public health , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The C-roundabout (cyclist roundabout) is a new multi-lane roundabout design (developed as part of a 2006 Land Transport NZ research project Improved multi-lane roundabout designs for cyclists) that aims to improve the safety of cyclists at multi-lane roundabouts and make multi-lane roundabouts more cyclist-friendly. A C-roundabout was installed at the Palomino Drive/Sturges Road intersection in Auckland and was evaluated between 2008 and 2011 in terms of its safety, capacity, and the opinions of cyclists, pedestrians and car drivers. The C-roundabout successfully reduced vehicle speeds to 30km/h, which is close to the speed of cyclists. This made the roundabout safer for cyclists, as well as for other road users. The installation of the C-roundabout at this uncongested site had little impact on capacity. It drew positive feedback from cyclists and pedestrians, but about half of the car drivers were not in favour of it.

Research Report 285 Aquatic ecotoxicity of cutback bitumen

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Most chipsealing in New Zealand is carried out using bitumen cutback (i.e. diluted) with kerosene. Under the new regulatory framework established by the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act (1996), bitumen with the addition of kerosene between 2.5–20% by weight has been classified as a 9.1C substance that is ‘ecotoxic to the aquatic environment’. Other (non-ecotoxicity related) classifications also apply. Cutback bitumens with more than 20% kerosene are not classified. The 9.1C ecotoxicity classification is derived from a calculation based on the aquatic toxicity of kerosene. Implicit in this classification is the assumption that the kerosene in cutback bitumen has the same bioavailability as pure kerosene. The object of this research was to establish whether this assumption is valid and whether the 9.1C classification for cutback bitumens is warranted. The research focused solely on aquatic ecotoxicity; other possible environmental affects of cutbacks in the atmosphere or terrestrial environment caused...

Research Report 341 The prediction of pavement remaining life

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The primary objective of the project was the development of criteria to define the end-of–life condition of pavements. These criteria could then be used in pavement performance modelling to obtain a more robust measure of remaining life. Another objective was the generation of a new model for maintenance costs. This could then be combined with the existing models for roughness and rutting to define a distress level at which rehabilitation should occur. None of the maintenance cost models developed were particularly successful in producing a reliable prediction of maintenance costs based on the pavement characteristics available from RAMM. Therefore, a logit model was developed to predict rehabilitation decisions. The major factors in the rehabilitation model were maintenance costs, traffic levels and roughness. The rehabilitation decision model derived for this study predicted rehabilitation decisions well. Approximately 72% of pavements that had been rehabilitated were predicted as requiring rehabilitation.

Research Report 457 Determination of personal exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This purpose of this project is to assess the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in New Zealand cities. Concentrations of the key traffic-related pollutants (particulate matter: (PM): PM10, PM2.5, PM1; ultrafine particles (UFPs) and carbon monoxide (CO)) were simultaneously monitored on pre-defined routes in Auckland and Christchurch during the morning and evening commute on people travelling by car, bus, on-road bike, train (Auckland only) and off-road bike (Christchurch only) from February to May 2009. The key results of this research are: • Car drivers are consistently exposed to the highest average levels of CO. • On-road cyclists are exposed to higher levels of CO, PM1 and UFPs than off-road cyclists. • Car drivers and bus passengers are exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists. • At some parts of their journeys, travellers are exposed to very high levels of...

Research Report 514 The contribution of public transport to economic productivity

Published: | Category: Transport demand management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The objective of this research was to quantify the contribution of public transport to economic productivity.

Research Report 232 Comparison of gyratory & Marshall asphalt design methods for New Zealand pavement mixes

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The historical development of the traditional Marshall and the modern gyratory-based, performance-related asphalt mix design procedures is described. New Zealand is progressively adopting performance-related specifications and implementing performance contracts for road maintenance and construction. Thus, in 2002, asphalt mixes sourced from a range of asphalt manufacturers located around New Zealand were subjected to a comprehensive laboratory testing regime, to determine their volumetric- and performance-related properties, such as modulus. Two sets of asphalt specimens were created, using either Marshall or gyratory compaction procedures, based on existing mix designs. They were then tested by AUSTROADS APRG18 procedures and equipment to provide performance-related data.

Research Report 291 Bitumen durability

Published: | Category: Activity management , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report describes research in 2004 and 2005 aimed at improving the means by which the durability of bitumens manufactured or imported to New Zealand for use in chipseals is assessed and monitored. Bitumen durability refers to the long-term resistance to oxidative hardening of the material in the field. Although, in-service, all bitumens harden with time through reaction with oxygen in the air, excessive rates of hardening (poor durability) can lead to premature binder embrittlement and surfacing failure resulting in cracking and chip loss. Some means of assessing durability by accelerating the process in the laboratory is necessary. However, no internationally accepted ‘standard’ exists for bitumen durability, as for some other bitumen tests (eg penetration). Keywords: bitumen, chipseal, durability, oxidation, pavements, roads, testing