This research note identifies a variety of land transport mode shift programmes that have demonstrated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily through changes in vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT).
Many interrelated factors influence GHG emissions including the level of active mode or public transport infrastructure, land use planning, government policies, parking management, public transport pricing, and urban logistics.
New Zealand can learn from these international programmes in terms of policy, implementation and measurement. The most immediate applications include mode-shift plans for New Zealand cities, environmental impact modelling, and developing emission reduction plans.
Keywords: greenhouse gas, emissions, transport, vehicle kilometres travelled, measurement, mode shift