Land Transport Rule
Vehicle Equipment 2004
Note: This Rule should be read in conjunction with Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Equipment Amendment 2005 and Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Equipment Amendment 2007.
- 1.1 Title
- 1.2 Scope of the rule
- 1.3 Date when rule comes into force
- 1.4 Application of rule provisions
- 2.1 Audible warning devices
- 2.2 Speedometers
- 2.3 Sun visors
- 2.4 Mudguards
- 2.5 Televisions in motor vehicles
- 2.6 Fuel tanks and fuel lines
- 2.7 Exhaust systems
- 2.8 Footrests on motorcycles and mopeds
- 2.9 Child restraints
- 4.1 Responsibilities of operators
- 4.2 Responsibilities of repairers
- 4.3 Responsibilities of modifiers
- 4.4 Responsibilities of vehicle inspectors and inspecting organisations
- 4.5 Responsibilities of manufacturers and retailers
Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Equipment 2004 is one of a series of rules that sets safety requirements and standards for systems and components in motor vehicles operating in New Zealand. This rule covers the safety and maintenance requirements for the following equipment fitted to motor vehicles: warning devices, speedometers, sun visors, mudguards, footrests on motorcycles and mopeds, child restraints, televisions, fuel tanks and fuel lines. The rule applies to all motor vehicles except power-assisted pedal cycles.
The rule sets out requirements for items of vehicle equipment fitted to a vehicle and lists the approved vehicle standards to be met by child restraints. Most of the equipment is mandatory, but the rule also specifies requirements for safety equipment that is voluntarily fitted.
Approved vehicle standards are specified for child restraints only. A choice of standards provides flexibility within agreed safety parameters. The approved vehicle standards are incorporated by reference in accordance with section 165 of the Land Transport Act 1998 so that, effectively, they are part of the rule.
This rule applies throughout the on-road life of a motor vehicle by specifying requirements for certification as a prerequisite to first registration in New Zealand, repair, modification, in-service inspection and other aspects of continuing compliance. The rule is an essential element of the safety framework governing vehicles in New Zealand. It links with, and provides a means of assessment for, Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002, which sets procedures for vehicle certification for registration, in-service fitness and other purposes.
The rule states who is responsible for ensuring compliance with its requirements: operators, repairers, modifiers, certifiers, manufacturers and retailers. This links the rule to provisions of the Land Transport (Offences and Penalties) Regulations 1999 (see, in particular, regulation 3 in conjunction with Schedule 1).
Formal public consultation on this rule began on 17 April 2003 when the Land Transport Safety Authority (LTSA) released the yellow (public consultation) draft. The availability of the draft was publicised in metropolitan and regional daily newspapers, Te Karere National News and the New Zealand Gazette. The draft rule was also made available on the LTSA’s website and was sent to overseas libraries and transport organisations.
The LTSA received nearly 3000 submissions on the yellow draft. The submissions were taken into account in redrafting the rule before it was submitted to Cabinet, and to the Associate Minister of Transport for signature.
This rule is Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Equipment 2004.
1.2(2) This rule specifies:
- (a) requirements for items of vehicle equipment with which a motor vehicle must comply so as to be operated on a road and that are, for the purpose of Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002, the applicable requirements for that equipment; and
- (b) approved standards for child restraints.
This rule comes into force on 27 February 2005.
1.4(1) If there is a conflict between a provision of this rule and the corresponding provision of a document incorporated by reference in the rule, the provision of the rule applies.
1.4(2) If there is a conflict between a provision of this rule and a provision of Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002 , the provision of Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002 applies.
1.4(3) For the avoidance of doubt, an exemption from, or approval of a variation to, a requirement for an item of vehicle equipment to which this rule relates that was specified in the Traffic Regulations 1976 and that was published in the Gazette before 27 February 2005, in relation to a specified vehicle or a specified class of vehicle remains valid after this rule comes into force, for all relevant vehicles that were registered in New Zealand before 27 February 2005.
2.1(1) Except as provided in 2.1(3), a motor vehicle must be fitted with a device that is audible to other road users.
2.1(2) A device in 2.1(1) must be:
- (a) in good working order; and
- (b) capable of giving a warning that is audible under normal traffic conditions from a distance of not less than 100 m.
2.1(6) A whistle may be fitted to a steam-operated traction engine.
- (a) an anti-theft car alarm; or
- (b) a personal security alarm; or
- (c) a reversing warning device.
2.2(1) Except as provided in 2.2(2) and 2.2(3), a motor vehicle that is capable of a speed exceeding 50 km/h and that was first registered in New Zealand on or after 1 December 1951, must be fitted with a speedometer in good working order that operates while the vehicle is moving forward.
2.2(3) A motor vehicle does not have to comply with 2.2(1) if:
- (a) the speedometer or any part of its associated equipment has been removed for repair and there has been no undue delay by the owner of the motor vehicle in having it replaced; or
- (b) the speedometer or any part of its associated equipment is out of repair, repair is impracticable and a suitable replacement is not available.
2.3(2) A passenger service vehicle must be fitted with a sun visor in accordance with Land Transport Rule: Passenger Service Vehicles 1999.
[Note: There is a standard relating to sun visor impact absorption: see Land Transport Rule: Interior Impact 2001, subclause 2.3(2).
2.4(2) A mudguard must cover not less than the width of tyre tread on each road wheel.
2.4(3) A mudguard must be securely fixed to the motor vehicle, and must be constructed so that it does not present a hazard to road users.
2.4(5) A mudguard fitted over each wheel of the rear axle of a motor vehicle with twin tyres or close-spaced multiple tyres must provide continuous protection from a horizontal line tangent to the top of the tyre tread to a line with a slope of 1:3 rising rearward from the tyre’s contact point on the road.
2.4(6) A trailer used for transporting round timber that cannot comply with 2.4(1) must have at least partial mudguards mounted behind the vehicle’s rearmost axle that comply with the following requirements:
- (a) the mudguard must provide continuous protection from a horizontal line tangent to the top of the tyre tread to a line with a slope of 1:3 rising rearward from the tyre’s contact point on the road; and
- (b) the distance between the tyre and the mudguard must not be more than twice the tyre rolling radius.
- (a) a motor vehicle in the Schedule;
- (b) a motor vehicle in an unfinished condition used under the authority of trade plates and operated in accordance with Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002;
- (c) a motor vehicle incapable of a speed exceeding 30 km/h and any trailer towed by that vehicle;
- (d) a straddle truck or forklift;
- (e) a motor vehicle for which a valid low volume vehicle authority card has been issued for the vehicle and its operator in accordance with the Low Volume Vehicle Code.
2.5(1) Except as provided in 2.5(2), any part of the image on a television screen fitted in a motor vehicle must not be visible to the driver of the motor vehicle from his or her normal driving position while the motor vehicle is in motion.
2.5(2) Subclause 2.5(1) does not apply if:
- (a) the television screen is fitted in the motor vehicle only for the purpose of assisting the driver to reverse safely, by showing a clear picture of the area directly behind the motor vehicle; or
- (b) the motor vehicle is a passenger service vehicle and the provisions of Land Transport Rule: Passenger Service Vehicles 1999 are complied with; or
- (c) the screen is fitted as original equipment by the vehicle manufacturer and is designed so that only information relating to the navigation, safe operation and control of the motor vehicle can be displayed on the screen while the motor vehicle is in motion; or
- (d) the screen is only capable of displaying text and any change to the text on the screen is controlled manually by the driver.
Fuel tanks, fuel lines and associated components in a motor vehicle must be:
- (a) securely mounted; and
- (b) made of suitable materials; and
- (c) in good condition; and
- (d) free from significant leaks; and
- (e) positioned so that the risk of mechanical damage or heat gain is minimised.
2.7(1) Except for a motor vehicle in the Schedule, a motor vehicle with an internal combustion engine must be fitted with an exhaust system that is in good working order.
2.7(2) An exhaust system must not be constructed or modified in a way that allows a person to interfere readily with its operation or reduce its effectiveness.
2.8(1) A motor vehicle of Class LA or Class LB must have:
- (a) adequate footrests or pedals for the rider; and
- (b) if provision is made for pillion riding, adequate footrests for the pillion passenger.
2.8(2) A motor vehicle of Class LC, Class LD or, if applicable, Class LE, must have:
- (a) adequate footrests for the rider; and
- (b) if provision is made for pillion riding, adequate footrests for the pillion passenger.
2.9(2) A motor vehicle complies with 2.9(1) if the child restraint is fitted in accordance with the child restraint manufacturer’s instructions.
2.9(3) A child restraint must comply with a version of one or more of the approved standards for child restraints in 2.9(4) and must be labelled or otherwise marked in accordance with the requirements of the applicable standard or standards.
- (a) Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard 1754 Child restraint systems for use in motor vehicles;
- (b) British Standard 3254 for adult seat belts, forward facing child safety seats and child harnesses;
- (c) British Standard AU185 for booster cushions;
- (d) British Standard AU202, Specification for rearward-facing restraint systems for infants, for use in road vehicles;
- (e) UN/ECE Regulation No. 44, Uniform provisions concerning the approval of restraining devices for child occupants of power-driven vehicles (“Child Restraint System”) (E/ECE324-E/ECE/TRANS/505/Add.43);
- (f) Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213, Child Restraint Systems;
- (g) Technical Standard for Child Restraints (Japan).
2.9(5) A child restraint manufactured to comply with 2.9(4)(f) must have been verified for compliance with that standard by an organisation specified by the Director by notice in the Gazette.
2.9(6) A child restraint that complies with 2.9(4)(g) must be integrated with the rear seat of a motor vehicle.
Version of standards for child restraints
2.9(7) A child restraint must comply with the version of an approved standard for child restraints that is:
- (a) applicable in the relevant standard-setting jurisdiction to the date of manufacture of the child restraint or as specified in the standard; or
- (b) a more recent version of that standard if the safety performance of the child restraint in the motor vehicle is not adversely affected.
Compliance with standards
2.9(8) A child restraint complies for the purposes of this rule with an applicable approved standard for child restraints if it:
- (a) complied with that standard when manufactured;
- (b) is currently within safe tolerance of its state when manufactured.
A modification to an item of vehicle equipment that is specified in this rule, or to a motor vehicle that affects the performance of that equipment beyond safe tolerance:
- (a) must not prevent the vehicle from complying with this rule; and
- (b) must be certified in accordance with Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002.
3.2(1) A repair to an item of vehicle equipment that is specified in this rule, or a repair to a motor vehicle affecting that equipment, must comply with this rule and with Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Repair 1998.
3.2(2) Replacement equipment used in a repair to a motor vehicle must comply with this rule.
A person who operates a motor vehicle must ensure that the vehicle and the vehicle equipment fitted in or to the vehicle comply with this rule.
A person who repairs, adjusts or replaces an item of vehicle equipment specified in this rule must ensure that the repair, adjustment or replacement:
- (a) does not prevent the motor vehicle from complying with this rule; and
- (b) complies with Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Repair 1998.
A person who modifies an item of vehicle equipment that is specified in this rule, or who modifies a motor vehicle so as to affect the performance of that equipment, must:
- (a) ensure that the modification does not prevent the vehicle from complying with this rule;
- (b) notify the operator if the vehicle must be inspected and, if necessary, certified, because there is reason to believe it is:
- (i) a light motor vehicle that has been modified to become a low volume vehicle; or
- (ii) a heavy motor vehicle that has been modified so as to adversely affect its safety performance or compliance with this rule.
A vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation must not certify a motor vehicle under Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002 if they have reason to believe that the vehicle does not comply with this rule.
A person may manufacture, stock or offer for sale an item of vehicle equipment specified in this rule that is intended for fitting to a motor vehicle to be operated on a New Zealand road, only if that equipment:
- (a) complies with this rule; and
- (b) if used to repair a vehicle, enables the repaired vehicle to comply with this rule.
- Ambulance service
- means a service that complies with the requirements in NZS 8156:2002 Ambulance Sector Standard.
- has the same meaning as in Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002.
- Child restraint
- includes child seats, booster seats and seatbelts designed specifically to fit children.
- in relation to vehicles, means a category of vehicle of one of the Groups A, L, M, N and T, as specified in Table A: Vehicle classes.
- Civil defence emergency vehicle
- means a vehicle operated under the instructions of a controller appointed under section 10 or section 26 of the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002 in an emergency as defined in section 4 of that Act.
- Defence fire brigade
- has the same meaning as it has in section 2 of the Fire Service Act 1975.
- Defence Force emergency vehicle
- means a vehicle which is either:
- (a) operated by the Royal New Zealand Navy Naval Police, the New Zealand Army Military Police or the Air Security Branch of the Royal New Zealand Air Force; or
- (b) an Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD) response vehicle.
- Emergency vehicle
- means a vehicle used for attendance at emergencies and operated:
- (a) by an enforcement officer;
- (b) by an ambulance service;
- (c) as a fire service vehicle;
- (d) as a civil defence emergency vehicle;
- (e) as a Defence Force emergency vehicle.
- Enforcement officer
- (a) a sworn member of the Police;
- (b) a non-sworn member of the Police who is authorised for the purpose by the Commissioner of Police;
- (c) a person who is appointed to that office by warrant under section 208 of the Land Transport Act 1998 or who holds office by virtue of that Act.
- Exhaust system
- means a pipe assembly through which the engine exhaust gases pass to the atmosphere and includes some means of sound attenuation.
- Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
- is a vehicle standard of the United States of America.
- Fire authority
- has the same meaning as it has in section 2 of the Forest and Rural Fires Act 1977.
- Fire service vehicle
- means a vehicle that is:
- (a) owned by the New Zealand Fire Service Commission or a fire authority;
- (b) operated by the New Zealand Fire Service, a defence fire brigade or any brigade responding under a co-ordination agreement and approved by the National Commander of the New Zealand Fire Service;
- (c) operated and approved by a fire authority.
- means a motor vehicle (not fitted with self-laying tracks) designed principally for lifting, carrying and stacking goods by means of one or more tines, platens or clamps.
- in relation to vehicles, means a collective category of the vehicle classes that are specified in Table A: Vehicle classes, as follows:
- (a) Group A means vehicles of Class AA and Class AB;
- (b) Group L means vehicles of Classes LA, LB, LC, LD and LE;
- (c) Group M means vehicles of Classes MA, MB, MC, MD and ME;
- (d) Group N means vehicles of Classes NA, NB and NC;
- (e) Group T means vehicles of Classes TA, TB, TC and TD.
- Heavy motor vehicle
- means a motor vehicle that:
- (a) is of Class MD3, MD4, ME, NB, NC, TC or TD; or
- (b) has a gross vehicle mass that exceeds 3500 kg and is not of a class specified in Table A: Vehicle classes.
- Light motor vehicle
- means a motor vehicle of any class except one defined as a ‘heavy motor vehicle’.
- Low volume vehicle
- means a motor vehicle of a class in Table A: Vehicle classes other than Class MD3, MD4, ME, NB, NC, TC or TD, that is:
- (a) manufactured, assembled or scratch-built in quantities of 200 or less at any one location in any one year, by a manufacturer whose total production of motor vehicles does not exceed 200 units over the same period, and where the construction of the motor vehicle directly or indirectly affects compliance of the motor vehicle with any of the vehicle standards prescribed by New Zealand law; or
- (b) modified uniquely, or in quantities of 200 or less at any one location in any one year, in such a way as to affect the compliance of the motor vehicle, its structure, systems, components and equipment, with a legal requirement relating to safety performance applicable at the time of the modification.
- Low volume vehicle authority card
- means a certification document issued by the Low Volume Vehicle Technical Association Incorporated, in accordance with the Low Volume Vehicle Code, that applies to a light motor vehicle modified for a specific purpose including for motor sport activities or for a person with a disability.
- Low Volume Vehicle Code
- means the code of the Low Volume Vehicle Technical Association Incorporated.
- in relation to a vehicle, means to change the vehicle structure from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing any structure, system, component or equipment; but does not include repair.
- Motor vehicle
- has the same meaning as it has in section 2(1) of the Land Transport Act 1998.
- means a fitting, inclusive of any portion of the vehicle and of any mudflaps attached, that serves to intercept material thrown up by a wheel more or less in the plane of the wheel.
- in relation to a vehicle, means to drive or use the vehicle on a road, or to cause or permit the vehicle to be on a road, or to be driven on a road, whether or not the person is present with the vehicle.
- Passenger service vehicle
- has the same meaning as in Land Transport Rule: Passenger Service Vehicles 1999.
- means to restore a damaged or worn motor vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment; and includes the replacement of damaged or worn structures, systems, components or equipment with equivalent undamaged or new structures, systems, components or equipment.
- Safe tolerance
- means the tolerance within which the safe performance of the vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment is not compromised, having regard to any manufacturer’s operating limits.
- means an instrument in a motor vehicle that is used to determine forward speed of the vehicle in kilometres per hour or miles per hour.
- Straddle truck
- means a powered vehicle that transports a load beneath its chassis and between its wheels.
- Sun visor
- means any attachment mounted above the inside of the windscreen and provided for the purpose of shielding the eyes of the driver and other front seat passengers from solar glare.
- Technical Standard
- means a Japanese domestic vehicle standard issued by the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport and translated into, and published in, English by the Japan Automobile Standards Internationalization Center (JASIC) in the Automobile Type Approval Handbook for Japanese Certification.
- Tyre rolling radius
- means the distance from the centre of the wheel to the road.
- Tyre tread
- means the portion of a tyre that contacts the road.
- is an abbreviation for a regulation of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
- has the same meaning as it has in section 2(1) of the Land Transport Act 1998.
- Vehicle inspector or inspecting organisation
- has the same meaning as in Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002.
|AA (Pedal cycle)||A vehicle designed to be propelled through a mechanism solely by human power.|
|AB (Power-assisted pedal cycle)||A pedal cycle to which is attached one or more auxiliary propulsion motors having a combined maximum power output not exceeding 200 watts.|
|LA (Moped with two wheels)||A motor vehicle (other than a power-assisted pedal cycle) that:
|LB (Moped with three wheels)||A motor vehicle (other than a power-assisted pedal cycle) that:
|LB 1||A Class LB motor vehicle that has one wheel at the front and two wheels at the rear.|
|LB 2||A Class LB motor vehicle that has two wheels at the front and one wheel at the rear.|
|LC (Motorcycle)||A motor vehicle that:
|LD (Motorcycle and side-car)||A motor vehicle that:
|Side-car||A car, box, or other receptacle attached to the side of a motor cycle and supported by a wheel.|
|LE (Motor tri-cycle)||A motor vehicle that:
|LE 1||A Class LE motor vehicle that has one wheel at the front and two wheels at the rear.|
|LE 2||A Class LE motor vehicle that has two wheels at the front and one wheel at the rear.|
|Passenger vehicle||A motor vehicle that:
|MA (Passenger car)
||A passenger vehicle (other than a Class MB or Class MC vehicle) that has not more than nine seating positions (including the driver's seating position).|
|MB (Forward control passenger vehicle)
||A passenger vehicle (other than a Class MC vehicle):
|MC (Off-road passenger vehicle)
||A passenger vehicle, designed with special features for off-road operation, that has not more than nine seating positions (including the driver's seating position), and that:
|Omnibus||A passenger vehicle that has more than nine seating positions (including the driver's seating position). An omnibus comprising two or more non-separable but articulated units shall be considered as a single vehicle.|
|MD (Light omnibus)||An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 5 tonnes.|
|MD 1||An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes and not more than 12 seats.|
|MD 2||An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes and more than 12 seats.|
|MD 3||An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 4.5 tonnes.|
|MD 4||An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 4.5 tonnes but not exceeding 5 tonnes.|
|ME (Heavy omnibus)||An omnibus that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 5 tonnes.|
|Goods vehicle||A motor vehicle that:
|NA (Light goods vehicle)||A goods vehicle that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes.|
|NB (Medium goods vehicle)||A goods vehicle that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 12 tonnes.|
|NC (Heavy goods vehicle)||A goods vehicle that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 12 tonnes.|
|Trailer||A vehicle without motive power that is constructed for the purpose of being drawn behind a motor vehicle.|
|TA (Very light trailer)||A single-axled trailer that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 0.75 tonnes.|
|TB (Light trailer)||A trailer (other than a Class TA trailer) that has a gross vehicle mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes.|
|TC (Medium trailer)||A trailer that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not exceeding 10 tonnes.|
|TD (Heavy trailer)||A trailer that has a gross vehicle mass exceeding 10 tonnes.|
Vehicles not required to meet certain requirements in this rule
- (a) traction engines;
- (b) mechanically propelled rollers;
- (c) cranes fitted with self-laying tracks;
- (d) excavators fitted with self-laying tracks;
- (e) tractors or machines used solely in agricultural, land management or roading operations, whether for traction or otherwise, that are not operated at a speed exceeding 30 km/h, together with any trailers operated only while being towed by those tractors or machines;
- (f) trailers designed exclusively for agricultural purposes and not operated except when being:
- (i) delivered from a manufacturer to the manufacturer’s agent; or
- (ii) taken to or from an agricultural show for display or demonstration purposes; or
- (iii) taken from one part of a farm to another part of that farm, or from one farm to another farm owned or managed by the same person; or
- (iv) taken to or from a farm by an agricultural contractor for the purpose of cultivation or harvest other than operations connected with the logging of trees and the cartage of fertiliser or lime or bulk liquids;
- (g) vehicles normally propelled by mechanical power while they are being temporarily towed without the use of their own power;
- (h) all-terrain vehicles used:
- (i) in moving from the operator’s place of residence to a road that is not a public highway, when the distance travelled is less than 3 km;
- (ii) in connection with their inspection, servicing or repair; or
- (iii) as agricultural vehicles.
Land Transport Rule - Vehicle Equipment 2004 - Rule 32017
Land Transport Safety Authority of New Zealand, Te Mana Marutau Waka Whenua o Aotearoa