Land transport currently contributes nearly 20% of greenhouse gas emissions in New Zealand. The government’s priority is to reduce emissions from the transport system.

The primary greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2), and other direct and indirect climate pollutants include black carbon (BC), methane (CH4) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Other air pollutants are included in 3.2 Impact of air emissions on health.

3.2 Impact of air emissions on health

This benefit might be identified in transport investments or programmes that impact the number of greenhouse-gas emitting vehicles or the emissions generated through mode shift or other means.

Three quantitative and one qualitative measures are available for this benefit. Greenhouse gas emissions are measured in the Monetised benefits and costs manual by CO2 equivalent emissions, which are determined through the Vehicle Emission Prediction Model (VEPM). The monetised value is the whole-of-government agreed shadow price of carbon. 

Vehicle Emission Prediction Model (VEPM) 


8.1.1 Greenhouse gas emissions (all vehicles)#

8.1.2 Mode shift from single occupancy private vehicle*

8.1.3 Light vehicle use impacts#

8.1.4 Freight transport impact on greenhouse gas emissions#

Measures marked # are quantitative and those marked * are qualitative.

For more information about these measures see Land Transport Benefits Framework measures manual.

Land Transport Benefits Framework measures manual


> Return to the overview of the Land Transport Benefits Framework