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Research Report 285 Aquatic ecotoxicity of cutback bitumen

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Most chipsealing in New Zealand is carried out using bitumen cutback (i.e. diluted) with kerosene. Under the new regulatory framework established by the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act (1996), bitumen with the addition of kerosene between 2.5–20% by weight has been classified as a 9.1C substance that is ‘ecotoxic to the aquatic environment’. Other (non-ecotoxicity related) classifications also apply. Cutback bitumens with more than 20% kerosene are not classified. The 9.1C ecotoxicity classification is derived from a calculation based on the aquatic toxicity of kerosene. Implicit in this classification is the assumption that the kerosene in cutback bitumen has the same bioavailability as pure kerosene. The object of this research was to establish whether this assumption is valid and whether the 9.1C classification for cutback bitumens is warranted. The research focused solely on aquatic ecotoxicity; other possible environmental affects of cutbacks in the atmosphere or terrestrial environment caused...

Research Report 457 Determination of personal exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This purpose of this project is to assess the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in New Zealand cities. Concentrations of the key traffic-related pollutants (particulate matter: (PM): PM10, PM2.5, PM1; ultrafine particles (UFPs) and carbon monoxide (CO)) were simultaneously monitored on pre-defined routes in Auckland and Christchurch during the morning and evening commute on people travelling by car, bus, on-road bike, train (Auckland only) and off-road bike (Christchurch only) from February to May 2009. The key results of this research are: • Car drivers are consistently exposed to the highest average levels of CO. • On-road cyclists are exposed to higher levels of CO, PM1 and UFPs than off-road cyclists. • Car drivers and bus passengers are exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists. • At some parts of their journeys, travellers are exposed to very high levels of...

Research Report 115 Lead-based paint management on roading structures: Section III – Guidelines

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report is Section III of four 'stand alone' documents that can be used by road controlling authorities, maintenance engineers, and industrial painting contractors when carrying out removal or maintenance of lead-based paints on steel roading structures to comply with their statutory obligations and minimise effects on the environment, and risks to workers and public health. This document contains guidelines for structure owners, maintenance engineers, consultants and contractors. It will assist them to identify the most cost-effective maintenance strategy while minimising environmental, and health and safety risks during the maintenance work.

Research Report 348 The development of gravel deterioration models for adoption in a New Zealand gravel road management system

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report provides the outcomes from research based on the Land Transport New Zealand gravel road monitoring programme that commenced during 2002 and included the cooperation of 51 local authorities. These sections were monitored on a sixmonthly basis and all relevant data such as maintenance, rainfall where available and evaporation were incorporated into a national database. This research project included the provision of practical guidelines for the construction and maintenance of gravel roads. In addition, the gravel road data were analysed and outcomes are presented. The resulting models are effective indications of gravel loss on a network scale but further research would be required for more detailed models. This can be achieved by collecting more information on the impact of routine maintenance such as blading.

Research Report 515 - The effect of rainfall and contaminants on road pavement skid resistance

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audiences: Communities, General

This research project, which was undertaken between 2003 and 2006, aimed to improve the understanding of the effect that environmental factors (eg rainfall and detritus) have on the variation of measured skid resistance, both in the short and longer term. Phase 1 of the research was a field study of seven sites in the Auckland and Northland regions over 2.5+ years, with regular skid resistance measurements primarily utilising the GripTester. Phase 2 involved developing a new laboratory-based accelerated polishing device and methodology for testing large (600 x 600mm) chipseal surfaces with the Dynamic Friction Tester.

Research Report 393 Relative costs and benefits of modal transport solutions

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report describes the outcomes of a study commissioned by the NZ Transport Agency to inform local authorities about the costs and benefits of transport modes. The aim of the study has been to provide general advice on the relative cost and benefits of alternatives with a focus on passenger transport in urban areas.

Research Report 114 Lead-based paint management on roading structures: Section II – Code of conduct for contractors

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This report is Section II of four 'stand alone' documents that can be used by road controlling authorities, maintenance engineers, and industrial painting contractors when carrying out removal or maintenance of lead-based paints on steel roading structures, to comply with their statutory obligations and minimise effects on the environment and risks to workers and public health.

Research report 404 Environmental and financial costs and benefits of warm asphalts

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

Warm asphalts are asphalts produced at significantly lower temperatures than the C that is typical of a hot mix plant. Depending on the approximately 160 technology used, laying and compaction may also be possible at significantly reduced temperatures. The report gives a summary of current warm asphalt technologies, followed by details of costs, temperature reductions and energy savings. A comparison is made of potential environmental costs and benefits of hot mix manufacture and the different warm mix methodologies.

Research Report 462 Lifetime liabilities of land transport using road and rail infrastructure

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

The aim of the project was to establish the whole-of-life environmental performance of passenger and freight movement that uses roads and rail. The performance indicators selected were life cycle energy consumption, life cycle stormwater contamination, and life cycle GHG emissions. This study was based on process assessment and considered material use, transport requirements, on-site machinery use, and fuel use. The impacts of traffic delays and rolling resistance were not considered. The study was undertaken in New Zealand between October 2009 and March 2011 using data for the year beginning July 2007 and ending June 2008.

Research Report 219 Recycling of materials for more sustainable road construction

Published: | Category: Environmental impacts of land transport , Research programme , Research & reports | Audience: General

This research project examined the economic, structural and attitudinal impediments to the recycling of materials in roading in New Zealand. It found that, although several materials (eg asphalt, tyres, waste oil, base course and aggregates from crushed concrete) could be recycled, little (excepting some base course) is recycled into New Zealand roads at present. The structural process of specifications, tender evaluation and risk sharing are major impediments, along with the lack of knowledge of and experience with recycling withing the roading industry in New Zealand. However, the industry believes it could quickly develop recycling and build its expertise if a supportive structural process was established. Based on industry input and a review of international recycling initiatives, recommendations to overcome these impediments are proposed.
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