The reach of public transport is extended when people can cycle or use micromobility to get to and from a stop.

Designing connections for cycling and micromobility to and from public transport requires consideration of safety, directness, and end of trip/interchange facilities. 

This access option is likely to be more attractive for longer public transport journeys, as cyclists may simply choose to ride the whole distance for shorter overall trips. 

The below table provides a typical practice guide about potential catchment sizes associated with cycling and powered micromobility.

Riding catchments and service provision
(based on Department of Transport and Main Roads 2016)

Riding catchment


≤2.5km or 10min riding

All public transport stops or stations with convenient end-of-trip access to stop/station, amenities and attractive public transport services

≤5km or 20min riding

Premium public transport stops and high passenger volume stations with high-quality, secure end-of-trip facilities

Up to 15km

Limited uptake, only for high passenger volume public transport stations where there is a long-distance commute to the nearest activity centre; important for ‘end of line’ services, particularly train stations, and some e-bike access

For additional information on riding catchments and more detailed guidance refer to:
Queensland Public Transport Infrastructure Manual (2015), Chapter 3(external link)

To plan for cycling and micromobility access to public transport, the following should be considered:

  • Routes to/ from ‘premium’ high frequency stops/stations are a high priority due to potential for mode shift: plan for infrastructure improvements to fill the gaps in on-road and off-cycling road routes, and stop/station infrastructure including protected cycle parking or storage (particularly where bicycles are not permitted on buses/trains).
  • Routes to/ from stops/stations in low density areas that connect to long public transport journeys: plan for infrastructure improvements to fill the gaps in on-road and off-road routes, and provide secure bicycle parking.
  • Consider personal amenities such as changing rooms at stations with high rates or potential rates of cycling, refer to the public transport interchange chapter.
  • The ability to take a bicycle or other micromobility device onto a service can help encourage journeys using public transport, especially as it enables cycling for the ‘last’ mile as well as first. This effectively increases the size of the transport network available by public transport. When rail replacement services are running (often when track work is being performed), replacement buses should also include provision for bicycles and other mobility devices. (See the Requirements for urban buses for further information on for space allocation for mobility devices on buses.) 

Planning for cycling and micromobility should identify appropriate locations for infrastructure interventions based on the role of each street for movement and place. It should also include wayfinding for cycling in local streets to attract additional cyclists. More information can be found in the Cycle Network Guidance.

parking facility example where the cycle parking station is next to a bus stop

Example of cycle parking facilities, Rangiora (Credit: Simon Hart)

Street environment considerations for cycling and micromobility

Street design that makes cycling and micromobility safe and attractive promotes good connections for public transport journeys. As is the case for walking, low traffic volumes and low speeds promote safer travel. High quality cycling infrastructure (ie separated from traffic) should be provided where traffic volumes or speeds are high.

Traffic calming could also be considered. Considerations about whether cyclists and those using powered micromobility will be comfortable using traffic lanes safely depends on the street context.

Designing cycling infrastructure in the Cycling Network Guidance

Micromobility such as private and shared e-scooters, and shared mobility such as bicycle and e-bike share, are emerging ways for people to bridge the first/last mile gap and to extend the reach of public transport.

There is limited research on the extent to which micromobility is being used as a first/last mile solution. However, the tools to encourage the safe use of non-powered micromobility devices to access public transport are like those for walking, such as wider footpaths and high-quality crossings, and cycling.

Powered micromobility such as electric scooters are newer to New Zealand and are currently often operated on footpaths.

Legislation is being considered to support use of cycle lanes and cycleways which may be a more appropriate location for those wanting to travel at speeds similar to cycling.

Charging points and secure storage may be beneficial at larger stations, particularly at ‘end of line’ stations. Where shared bikes or scooters are used, space should be provided outside the station where they can be left without blocking footpaths. At stations with large numbers of people arriving by walking, cycling and scootering, infrastructure should provide separation between people moving at different speeds.

cycle and escooter parking station on the shared footpath

Example of e-scooter parking facilities (Source: bikeep)

Directness for cycling and micromobility

Permeable street networks allow for direct cycling and micromobility journeys.

Permeability can include off-road connections not available to cars and larger motor vehicles or protected mid-block crossings across busy streets.

Opportunities to provide cycling and micromobility connections to make journeys more direct are presented in the Cycle Network Guidance.

Reducing severance in the Cycling Network Guidance

Stop and station infrastructure for first and last mile

The attractiveness and therefore use of cycling and micromobility to access public transport increases if high quality end of trip facilities are provided at the stop or station.

Such facilities may include:

  • direct and prioritised access to the platform or boarding area from the street (namely, avoiding the need for cyclists and micromobility riders to travel through a car parking area)
  • secure storage and lockable parking for bicycles and scooters
  • lockers for personal storage
  • storage docking stations for shared bikes/scooters
  • storage zones for dockless devices such as shared bikes/scooters
  • charging facilities for e-bikes and powered micromobility
  • toilet facilities
  • bicycle / scooter repair stations.


Related guidance